Our perception of objects depends on non-oculomotor depth cues, such as pictorial distance cues and binocular disparity, and oculomotor depth cues, such as vergence and accommodation. Although vergence eye movements are always involved in perceiving real distance, previous studies have mainly focused on the effect of oculomotor state via “proprioception” on distance and size perception. It remains unclear whether the oculomotor command of vergence eye movement would also influence visual processing. To address this question, we placed a light at 28.5 cm and a screen for stimulus presentation at 57 cm from the participants. In the NoDivergence condition, participants were asked to maintain fixation on the light regardless of stimulus presentation throughout the trial. In the WithDivergence condition, participants were instructed to initially maintain fixation on the near light and then turn their two eyes outward to look at the stimulus on the far screen. The stimulus was presented for 100 msec, entirely within the preparation stage of the divergence eye movement. We found that participants perceived the stimulus as larger but were less sensitive to stimulus sizes in the WithDivergence condition than in the NoDivergence condition. The earliest visual evoked component C1 (peak latency 80 msec), which varied with stimulus size in the NoDivergence condition, showed similar amplitudes for larger and smaller stimuli in the WithDivergence condition. These results show that vergence eye movement planning affects the earliest visual processing and size perception, and demonstrate an example of the effect of motor command on sensory processing.

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