Females with fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited developmental and learning problems, are known to be impaired in executive function. The current study is the first to investigate the performance of females with fragile X on a cognitive interference task utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fourteen females with fragile X and 14 age-matched healthy controls were imaged while they performed a counting Stroop interference task. Compared to controls, females with fragile X appeared to have longer reaction times during the interference condition of the task, and adopted a strategy trading speed for accuracy. Females with fragile X also had a significantly different pattern of activation than controls. Whereas controls showed significant activation in the inferior/ middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobe, females with fragile X showed more extensive activation in the anterior region of the prefrontal cortex, and failed to show expected activation in the inferior/superior parietal lobe. Further, between-group analyses revealed that females with fragile X had reduced activation in the left orbitofrontal gyrus, thought to be involved in modulating goal-directed behavior. Females with fragile X also demonstrated a markedly different pattern of deactivation from controls. These findings suggest that deficits in cognitive interference processing during the counting Stroop task observed in females with fragile X may arise from inability to appropriately recruit and modulate lateral prefrontal and parietal resources.