Neuroimaging results have raised interest in characterizing hemispheric asymmetries in prefrontal activity during different types of memory retrieval tasks. In this issue, Dobbins et al. and Mitchell et al. report results suggesting that the two hemispheres of the prefrontal cortex may indeed make different contributions to memory retrieval. Here, I discuss these findings within the context of studies characterizing more general processing differences between the cerebral hemispheres and studies characterizing prefrontal organization along the dorsal– ventral and anterior–posterior dimensions.