Abstract

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain's response is often evident at the frequency of stimulation, F, and its higher harmonics (2F, 3F, etc.). This approach is increasingly used in neuroscience, as it affords objective measures to characterize brain function. However, whether these specific harmonic frequency responses should be combined for analysis—and if so, how—remains an outstanding issue. In most studies, higher harmonic responses have not been described or were described only individually; in other studies, harmonics have been combined with various approaches, for example, averaging and root-mean-square summation. A rationale for these approaches in the context of frequency-based analysis principles and an understanding of how they relate to the brain's response amplitudes in the time domain have been missing. Here, with these elements addressed, the summation of (baseline-corrected) harmonic amplitude is recommended.

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