Skip Nav Destination
1-3 of 3
Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account
Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (1999) 11 (4): 337–348.
Published: 01 July 1999
AbstractView article PDF
Previous neuroimaging studies of perceptual priming have reported priming-related decreases in the extrastriate cortex. However, because these experiments have used visual stimuli, it is unclear whether the observed decreases are associated specifically with some aspect of visual perceptual processing or with more general aspects of priming. We studied within-and cross-modality priming using an auditory word stem completion paradigm. Positron emission tomography (PET) images were obtained during stem completion and a fixation task. Within-modality auditory priming was associated with blood flow decreases in the extrastriate cortex (bilateral), medial/ right anterior prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, and precuneus. In cross-modality priming, the study list was presented visually, and subjects completed auditory word stems. Cross-modality priming was associated with trends for blood flow decreases in the left angular gyrus and increases in the medial/right anterior prefrontal cortex. Results thus indicate that reduced activity in the extrastriate cortex accompanies within-modality priming in both visual and auditory modalities.
Individual Differences in Cerebral Blood Flow in Area 17 Predict the Time to Evaluate Visualized Letters
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (1996) 8 (1): 78–82.
Published: 01 January 1996
AbstractView article PDF
Sixteen subjects closed their eyes and visualized uppercase letters of the alphabet at two sizes, as small as possible or as large as possible while remaining “visible.” Subjects evaluated a shape characteristic of each letter (e.g., whether it has any curved lines), and responded as quickly as possible. Cerebral blood flow was normalized to the same value for each subject, and relative blood flow was computed for a set of regions of interest. The mean response time for each subject in the task was regressed onto the blood flow values. Blood flow in area 17 was negatively correlated with response time (r = -0.65), as was blood flow in area 19 (r = -0.66), whereas blood flow in the inferior parietal lobe was positively correlated with response time (r = 0.54). The first two effects persisted even when variance due to the other correlations was removed. These findings suggest that individual differences in the activation of specific brain loci are directly related to performance of tasks that rely on processing in those loci.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (1993) 5 (3): 263–287.
Published: 01 July 1993
AbstractView article PDF
Cerebral blood flow was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in three experiments while subjects performed mental imagery or analogous perceptual tasks. In Experiment 1, the subjects either visualized letters in grids and decided whether an X mark would have fallen on each letter if it were actually in the grid, or they saw letters in grids and decided whether an X mark fell on each letter. A region identified as part of area 17 by the Talairach and Tournoux (1988) atlas, in addition to other areas involved in vision, was activated more in the mental imagery task than in the perception task. In Experiment 2, the identical stimuli were presented in imagery and baseline conditions, but subjects were asked to form images only in the imagery condition; the portion of area 17 that was more active in the imagery condition of Experiment 1 was also more activated in imagery than in the baseline condition, as was part of area 18. Subjects also were tested with degraded perceptual stimuli, which caused visual cortex to be activated to the same degree in imagery and perception. In both Experiments 1 and 2, however, imagery selectively activated the extreme anterior part of what was identified as area 17, which is inconsistent with the relatively small size of the imaged stimuli. These results, then, suggest that imagery may have activated another region just anterior to area 17. In Experiment 3, subjects were instructed to close their eyes and evaluate visual mental images of upper case letters that were formed at a small size or large size. The small mental images engendered more activation in the posterior portion of visual cortex, and the large mental images engendered more activation in anterior portions of visual cortex. This finding is strong evidence that imagery activates topographically mapped cortex. The activated regions were also consistent with their being localized in area 17. Finally, additional results were consistent with the existence of two types of imagery, one that rests on allocating attention to form a pattern and one that rests on activating stored visual memories.