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Resting-state Functional Connectivity of the Right Temporoparietal Junction Relates to Belief Updating and Reorienting during Spatial Attention
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2020) 32 (6): 1130–1141.
Published: 01 June 2020
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Although multiple studies characterized the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), little is known about the link between rTPJ rsFC and cognitive functions. Given a putative involvement of rTPJ in both reorienting of attention and the updating of probabilistic beliefs, this study characterized the relationship between rsFC of rTPJ with dorsal and ventral attention systems and these two cognitive processes. Twenty-three healthy young participants performed a modified location-cueing paradigm with true and false prior information about the percentage of cue validity to assess belief updating and attentional reorienting. Resting-state fMRI was recorded before and after the task. Seed-based correlation analysis was employed, and correlations of each behavioral parameter with rsFC before the task, as well as with changes in rsFC after the task, were assessed in an ROI-based approach. Weaker rsFC between rTPJ and right intraparietal sulcus before the task was associated with relatively faster updating of the belief that the cue will be valid after false prior information. Moreover, relatively faster belief updating, as well as faster reorienting, were related to an increase in the interhemispheric rsFC between rTPJ and left TPJ after the task. These findings are in line with task-based connectivity studies on related attentional functions and extend results from stroke patients demonstrating the importance of interhemispheric parietal interactions for behavioral performance. The present results not only highlight the essential role of parietal rsFC for attentional functions but also suggest that cognitive processing during a task changes connectivity patterns in a performance-dependent manner.
Dynamic Coding of Events within the Inferior Frontal Gyrus in a Probabilistic Selective Attention Task
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2011) 23 (2): 414–424.
Published: 01 February 2011
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Besides the fact that RTs in cognitive tasks are affected by the specific demands of a trial, the context in which this trial occurs codetermines the speed of the response. For instance, invalid spatial cues generally prolong RTs to targets in the location-cueing paradigm, whereas the magnitude of these RT costs additionally varies as a function of the preceding trial types so that RTs for invalid trials may be increased when preceded by valid rather than invalid trials. In the present fMRI study, we investigated trial sequence effects in a combined oddball and location-cueing paradigm. In particular, we tested whether RTs and neural activity to infrequent invalid or deviant targets varied as a function of the number of preceding valid standard trials. As expected, RTs in invalid and deviant trials were significantly slower when more valid standard trials had been presented beforehand. This behavioral effect was reflected in the neural activity of the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus where the amplitude of the hemodynamic response in invalid and deviant trials was positively related to the number of preceding valid standard trials. In contrast, decreased activity (i.e., a negative parametric modulation effect) was observed when more valid standard trials were successively presented. Further positive parametric effects for the number of preceding valid standard trials were observed in the left caudate nucleus and lingual gyrus. The data suggest that inferior frontal cortex extracts both event regularities and irregularities in event streams.
What is “Odd” in Posner's Location-cueing Paradigm? Neural Responses to Unexpected Location and Feature Changes Compared
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2009) 21 (1): 30–41.
Published: 01 January 2009
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Within the parietal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) seem to be involved in both spatial and nonspatial functions: Both areas are activated when misleading information is provided by invalid spatial cues in Posner's location-cueing paradigm, but also when infrequent deviant stimuli are presented within a series of standard events. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the distinct and shared brain responses to (i) invalidly cued targets requiring attentional reorienting, and (ii) to target stimuli deviating in color and orientation leading to an oddball-like distraction effect. Both unexpected location and feature changes were accompanied by a significant slowing of manual reaction times. Bilateral TPJ and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) activation was observed in response to invalidly as compared to validly cued targets. In contrast, the bilateral inferior occipito-temporal cortex, the left inferior parietal cortex, right frontal areas, and the cerebellum showed stronger activation in response to deviant than to standard targets. Common activations were observed in the right angular gyrus along the IPS and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. We conclude that the superior parietal and temporo-parietal activations observed here as well as previously in location-cueing paradigms do not merely reflect the detection and processing of unexpected stimuli. Furthermore, our data suggest that the right IPS and the inferior frontal gyrus are involved in attentional selection and distractor processing of both spatial and nonspatial features.