Debates have raged about the validity of undertaking arts-based research and the latter’s relationship to traditional academic research. The extent to which the art practice PhD has been accepted varies considerably, particularly along geographical lines. Everywhere that art practice is being considered as a research method, a question is posed: whether art shares enough of the aims, methods, and assumptions of other research practices to be understood as being of a kind with them, and whether treating it as such will further its goals, or betray them in pursuit of an easier positioning within institutional and funding structures.

In 2017, Leonardo initiated a symposium on the PhD in art and design with an article from Ken Friedman and Jack Ox that asks whether persons trained in the practice of art are properly equipped to conduct research, and what this research might look like [1]. They observe that since...

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