Gapping removes the finite element (T and its host), possibly along with additional material, in the second and subsequent coordinates of a coordination structure, leaving behind two remnants. (The material that has gone missing—in (1), the finite auxiliary had and the main verb ordered—is represented with ∆.)

Building on a long tradition of earlier work, Johnson (2009:293) identifies three unique properties that distinguish gapping from superficially similar elliptical constructions, such as pseudogapping (e.g., Some had ordered mussels, and others hadswordfish). First, gapping is restricted to coordination structures (2) (Jackendoff 1971:22, Hankamer 1979:18–19). Second, the gap in gapping cannot be embedded (3) (Hankamer 1979:19). Third, the antecedent in gapping cannot be embedded (4) (Hankamer 1979:20).

Crucially, (4) is ungrammatical under an interpretation in which only the antecedent clause—not the gapped...

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