Sparse coding is a method for finding a representation of data in which each of the components of the representation is only rarely significantly active. Such a representation is closely related to redundancy reduction and independent component analysis, and has some neurophysiological plausibility. In this article, we show how sparse coding can be used for denoising. Using maximum likelihood estimation of nongaussian variables corrupted by gaussian noise, we show how to apply a soft-thresholding (shrinkage) operator on the components of sparse coding so as to reduce noise. Our method is closely related to the method of wavelet shrinkage, but it has the important benefit over wavelet methods that the representation is determined solely by the statistical properties of the data. The wavelet representation, on the other hand, relies heavily on certain mathematical properties (like self-similarity) that may be only weakly related to the properties of natural data.

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