The concave-convex procedure (CCCP) is a way to construct discrete-time iterative dynamical systems that are guaranteed to decrease global optimization and energy functions monotonically. This procedure can be applied to almost any optimization problem, and many existing algorithms can be interpreted in terms of it. In particular, we prove that all expectation-maximization algorithms and classes of Legendre minimization and variational bounding algorithms can be reexpressed in terms of CCCP. We show that many existing neural network and mean-field theory algorithms are also examples of CCCP. The generalized iterative scaling algorithm and Sinkhorn's algorithm can also be expressed as CCCP by changing variables. CCCP can be used both as a new way to understand, and prove the convergence of, existing optimization algorithms and as a procedure for generating new algorithms.

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