Experimental evidence indicates that synaptic modification depends on the timing relationship between the presynaptic inputs and the output spikes that they generate. In this letter, results are presented for models of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) whose weight dynamics is determined by a stable fixed point. Four classes of STDP are identified on the basis of the time extent of their input-output interactions. The effect on the potentiation of synapses with different rates of input is investigated to elucidate the relationship of STDP with classical studies of long-term potentiation and depression and rate-based Hebbian learning. The selective potentiation of higher-rate synaptic inputs is found only for models where the time extent of the input-output interactions is input restricted (i.e., restricted to time domains delimited by adjacent synaptic inputs) and that have a time-asymmetric learning window with a longer time constant for depression than for potentiation. The analysis provides an account of learning dynamics determined by an input-selective stable fixed point. The effect of suppressive interspike interactions on STDP is also analyzed and shown to modify the synaptic dynamics.

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