In the linear case, statistical independence is a sufficient criterion for performing blind source separation. In the nonlinear case, however, it leaves an ambiguity in the solutions that has to be resolved by additional criteria. Here we argue that temporal slowness complements statistical independence well and that a combination of the two leads to unique solutions of the nonlinear blind source separation problem. The algorithm we present is a combination of second-order independent component analysis and slow feature analysis and is referred to as independent slow feature analysis. Its performance is demonstrated on nonlinearly mixed music data. We conclude that slowness is indeed a useful complement to statistical independence but that time-delayed second-order moments are only a weak measure of statistical independence.

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