We study the connections between causal relations and conditional independence within the settable systems extension of the Pearl causal model (PCM). Our analysis clearly distinguishes between causal notions and probabilistic notions, and it does not formally rely on graphical representations. As a foundation, we provide definitions in terms of suitable functional dependence for direct causality and for indirect and total causality via and exclusive of a set of variables. Based on these foundations, we provide causal and stochastic conditions formally characterizing conditional dependence among random vectors of interest in structural systems by stating and proving the conditional Reichenbach principle of common cause, obtaining the classical Reichenbach principle as a corollary. We apply the conditional Reichenbach principle to show that the useful tools of d-separation and D-separation can be employed to establish conditional independence within suitably restricted settable systems analogous to Markovian PCMs.

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