If interspike intervals are dependent, the instantaneous firing rate does not catch important features of spike trains. In this case, the conditional instantaneous rate plays the role of the instantaneous firing rate for the case of samples of independent interspike intervals. If the conditional distribution of the interspikes intervals (ISIs) is unknown, it becomes difficult to evaluate the conditional firing rate. We propose a nonparametric estimator for the conditional instantaneous firing rate for Markov, stationary, and ergodic ISIs. An algorithm to check the reliability of the proposed estimator is introduced, and its consistency properties are proved. The method is applied to data obtained from a stochastic two-compartment model and to in vitro experimental data.

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