Human memory is capable of retrieving similar memories to a just retrieved one. This associative ability is at the base of our everyday processing of information. Current models of memory have not been able to underpin the mechanism that the brain could use in order to actively exploit similarities between memories. The current idea is that to induce transitions in attractor neural networks, it is necessary to extinguish the current memory. We introduce a novel mechanism capable of inducing transitions between memories where similarities between memories are actively exploited by the neural dynamics to retrieve a new memory. Populations of neurons that are selective for multiple memories play a crucial role in this mechanism by becoming attractors on their own. The mechanism is based on the ability of the neural network to control the excitation-inhibition balance.

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