Large-scale fluorescence calcium imaging methods have become widely adopted for studies of long-term hippocampal and cortical neuronal dynamics. Pyramidal neurons of the rodent hippocampus show spatial tuning in freely foraging or head-fixed navigation tasks. Development of efficient neural decoding methods for reconstructing the animal's position in real or virtual environments can provide a fast readout of spatial representations in closed-loop neuroscience experiments. Here, we develop an efficient strategy to extract features from fluorescence calcium imaging traces and further decode the animal's position. We validate our spike inference-free decoding methods in multiple in vivo calcium imaging recordings of the mouse hippocampus based on both supervised and unsupervised decoding analyses. We systematically investigate the decoding performance of our proposed methods with respect to the number of neurons, imaging frame rate, and signal-to-noise ratio. Our proposed supervised decoding analysis is ultrafast and robust, and thereby appealing for real-time position decoding applications based on calcium imaging.

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