Active inference is a state-of-the-art framework in neuroscience that offers a unified theory of brain function. It is also proposed as a framework for planning in AI. Unfortunately, the complex mathematics required to create new models can impede application of active inference in neuroscience and AI research. This letter addresses this problem by providing a complete mathematical treatment of the active inference framework in discrete time and state spaces and the derivation of the update equations for any new model. We leverage the theoretical connection between active inference and variational message passing as described by John Winn and Christopher M. Bishop in 2005. Since variational message passing is a well-defined methodology for deriving Bayesian belief update equations, this letter opens the door to advanced generative models for active inference. We show that using a fully factorized variational distribution simplifies the expected free energy, which furnishes priors over policies so that agents seek unambiguous states. Finally, we consider future extensions that support deep tree searches for sequential policy optimization based on structure learning and belief propagation.

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