Locus coeruleus (LC) overactivity, especially in the right hemisphere, is a recognized pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be related to inattention. LC activity synchronizes with the kinetics of the pupil diameter and reflects neural activity related to cognitive functions such as attention and arousal. Recent studies highlight the importance of the complexity of the temporal patterns of pupil diameter. Moreover, asymmetrical pupil diameter, which correlates with the severity of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity in ADHD, might be attributed to a left-right imbalance in LC activity. We recently constructed a computational model of pupil diameter based on the newly discovered contralateral projection from the LC to the Edinger–Westphal nucleus (EWN), which demonstrated mechanisms for the complex temporal patterns of pupil kinetics; however, it remains unclear how LC overactivity and its asymmetry affect pupil diameter. We hypothesized that a neural model of pupil diameter control featuring left-right differences in LC activity and projections onto two opponent sides may clarify the role of pupil behavior in ADHD studies. Therefore, we developed a pupil diameter control model reflecting LC overactivity in the right hemisphere by incorporating a contralateral projection from the LC to EWN and evaluated the complexity of the temporal patterns of pupil diameter generated by the model. Upon comparisons with experimentally measured pupil diameters in adult patients with ADHD, the parameter region of interest of the neural model was estimated, which was a region in the two-dimensional plot of complexity versus left-side LC baseline activity and that of the right. A region resulting in relatively high right-side complexity, which corresponded to the pathophysiological indexes, was identified. We anticipate that the discovery of lateralization of complexity in pupil diameter fluctuations will facilitate the development of biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of ADHD.

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