Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a widely accepted treatment for the Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditionally, it is done in an open-loop manner, where stimulation is always ON, irrespective of the patient needs. As a consequence, patients can feel some side effects due to the continuous high-frequency stimulation. Closed-loop DBS can address this problem as it allows adjusting stimulation according to the patient need. The selection of open- or closed-loop DBS and an optimal algorithm for closed-loop DBS are some of the main challenges in DBS controller design, and typically the decision is made through sampling based simulations. In this letter, we used model checking, a formal verification technique used to exhaustively explore the complete state space of a system, for analyzing DBS controllers. We analyze the timed automata of the open-loop and closed-loop DBS controllers in response to the basal ganglia (BG) model. Furthermore, we present a formal verification approach for the closed-loop DBS controllers using timed computation tree logic (TCTL) properties, that is, safety, liveness (the property that under certain conditions, some event will eventually occur), and deadlock freeness. We show that the closed-loop DBS significantly outperforms existing open-loop DBS controllers in terms of energy efficiency. Moreover, we formally analyze the closed-loop DBS for energy efficiency and time behavior with two algorithms, the constant update algorithm and the error prediction update algorithm. Our results demonstrate that the closed-loop DBS running the error prediction update algorithm is efficient in terms of time and energy as compared to the constant update algorithm.

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