Zero-shot learning (ZSL) refers to the design of predictive functions on new classes (unseen classes) of data that have never been seen during training. In a more practical scenario, generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) requires predicting both seen and unseen classes accurately. In the absence of target samples, many GZSL models may overfit training data and are inclined to predict individuals as categories that have been seen in training. To alleviate this problem, we develop a parameter-wise adversarial training process that promotes robust recognition of seen classes while designing during the test a novel model perturbation mechanism to ensure sufficient sensitivity to unseen classes. Concretely, adversarial perturbation is conducted on the model to obtain instance-specific parameters so that predictions can be biased to unseen classes in the test. Meanwhile, the robust training encourages the model robustness, leading to nearly unaffected prediction for seen classes. Moreover, perturbations in the parameter space, computed from multiple individuals simultaneously, can be used to avoid the effect of perturbations that are too extreme and ruin the predictions. Comparison results on four benchmark ZSL data sets show the effective improvement that the proposed framework made on zero-shot methods with learned metrics.

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