Computing motion on the basis of the time-varying image intensity is a difficult problem for both artificial and biological vision systems. We show how gradient models, a well-known class of motion algorithms, can be implemented within the magnocellular pathway of the primate's visual system. Our cooperative algorithm computes optical flow in two steps. In the first stage, assumed to be located in primary visual cortex, local motion is measured while spatial integration occurs in the second stage, assumed to be located in the middle temporal area (MT). The final optical flow is extracted in this second stage using population coding, such that the velocity is represented by the vector sum of neurons coding for motion in different directions. Our theory, relating the single-cell to the perceptual level, accounts for a number of psychophysical and electrophysiological observations and illusions.

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