We develop mean-field approaches for probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA). The sources are estimated from the mean of their posterior distribution and the mixing matrix (and noise level) is estimated by maximum a posteriori (MAP). The latter requires the computation of (a good approximation to) the correlations between sources. For this purpose, we investigate three increasingly advanced mean-field methods: the variational (also known as naive mean field) approach, linear response corrections, and an adaptive version of the Thouless, Anderson and Palmer (1977) (TAP) mean-field approach, which is due to Opper and Winther (2001). The resulting algorithms are tested on a number of problems. On synthetic data, the advanced mean-field approaches are able to recover the correct mixing matrix in cases where the variational mean-field theory fails. For handwritten digits, sparse encoding is achieved using nonnegative source and mixing priors. For speech, the mean-field method is able to separate in the underdetermined (overcomplete) case of two sensors and three sources. One major advantage of the proposed method is its generality and algorithmic simplicity. Finally, we point out several possible extensions of the approaches developed here.

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