A stimulus can be encoded in a population of spiking neurons through any change in the statistics of the joint spike pattern, yet we commonly summarize single-trial population activity by the summed spike rate across cells: the population peristimulus time histogram (pPSTH). For neurons with a low baseline spike rate that encode a stimulus with a rate increase, this simplified representation works well, but for populations with high baseline rates and heterogeneous response patterns, the pPSTH can obscure the response. We introduce a different representation of the population spike pattern, which we call an “information train,” that is well suited to conditions of sparse responses, especially those that involve decreases rather than increases in firing. We use this tool to study populations with varying levels of burstiness in their spiking statistics to determine how burstiness affects the representation of spike decreases (firing “gaps”). Our simulated populations of spiking neurons varied in size, baseline rate, burst statistics, and correlation. Using the information train decoder, we find that there is an optimal level of burstiness for gap detection that is robust to several other parameters of the population. We consider this theoretical result in the context of experimental data from different types of retinal ganglion cells and determine that the baseline spike statistics of a recently identified type support nearly optimal detection of both the onset and strength of a contrast step.

Most neurons communicate using sequences of action potentials called spike trains. Decoding information from spike trains involves extracting a signal in the face of noise, but which features of the spike train represent signal versus noise and how to represent joint spike patterns across neurons is not always clear (Rieke et al., 1999; Cessac et al., 2010). Neurons may differ both in the way they respond to a stimulus as well as in their baseline spike patterns in the absence of a stimulus, and spike trains among a population of neurons can vary in their patterns of correlation. Many papers have examined the role of first-order statistics (mean firing rate) and correlations on the efficiency of information transmission by spike trains (da Silveira & Rieke, 2021; Panzeri et al., 1999; Ainsworth et al., 2012; Ratté et al., 2013; de la Rocha et al., 2007). Higher-order statistics beyond the mean and variance of the spike rate, such as temporal coding and burst coding, have also been investigated, especially in the auditory cortex (Bowman et al., 1995; King et al., 2007). Previous work has focused on the effect of higher-order statistics as a stimulus response feature but has not examined the role of higher-order baseline spike statistics in the way neural populations encode decreases in firing rate. Here, we develop a new analysis to represent a population response and reveal how the burstiness of spike trains affects transmission of information about firing gaps—periods of silence in spiking activity caused by a decreased firing rate.

The spike pattern of even a relatively small neural population is a distribution in high-dimensional space that is typically infeasible to sample experimentally and is likely undersampled by any downstream decoder in the brain. Thus, finding a way to approximate this distribution and discovering which of its features are most important for a particular task are fundamental goals in understanding neural population codes. Any change in the joint spike distribution could theoretically provide information. Sensory neurons change their firing patterns in the presence of an external stimulus, so we can measure information with respect to a known experimental variable.

Many neurons have low or zero spontaneous spike rates (Tripathy & Gerkin, 2016), so rate increases in the presence of a stimulus are the most common and well-studied type of information transmission (Romo & Salinas, 2001; Britten et al., 1992; Gold & Shadlen, 2007). However, the central nervous system (CNS) also contains a wide variety of tonically firing neurons, which are well suited to transmit information by decreasing their tonic spike rate. Examples include Purkinje cells (Kase et al., 1980; Ohtsuka & Noda, 1995), lateral geniculate relay neurons (McCormick & Feeser, 1990), spinal cord neurons (Legendre et al., 1985), hippocampal CA1 (Azouz et al., 1996) and CA3 (Raus Balind et al., 2019) cells, and cortical pyramidal cells (Harris et al., 2001). Tonic firing in neurons results from a combination of the influence of synaptic networks and intrinsic electrical properties (Llinas, 2014; Destexhe & Paré, 1999). Both factors can affect the higher-order statistics of tonic spike trains. Higher-order spatial correlations between neurons have been well studied, including in the retina (Pillow et al., 2008; Zylberberg et al., 2016; Ruda et al., 2020), but we focus here on higher-order single-neuron temporal statistics. Different neurons at the same mean rate can have spike trains that vary along the spectrum from the perfectly periodic clock-like transmission of single spikes to highly irregular bouts of bursting and silence (Zeldenrust et al., 2018; de Zeeuw et al., 2011). The goal of the theoretical part of this study was to determine how higher-order temporal statistics affect the encoding capacity of a neural population. Specifically, is there an optimal level of burstiness for representing firing gaps?

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the retina, offer a tractable system for both experimental and theoretical studies of information transmission in spike trains. As the sole retinal outputs, RGCs must carry all the visual information used by an animal to their downstream targets in the brain. RGC classification is more complete, particularly in mice (Goetz et al., 2022), than the classification of virtually any other class of neurons in the CNS. Finally, RGCs of each type form mosaics that evenly sample visual space, creating a clear relationship between the size of a visual stimulus and the number of neurons used to represent it (Rodieck, 1998).

Inspired by the recent discoveries of how different types of tonically firing RGCs encode contrast (Jacoby & Schwartz, 2018; Wienbar & Schwartz, 2022), here we develop a theoretical framework for representing information changes in a neural population under the assumption that a given stimulus causes the spiking statistics to strongly deviate from the statistics during spontaneous activity. We apply this framework to measure the role of burstiness in a population’s ability to encode the time and duration of a gap in firing. We propose a continuous, lossless readout of a spike train into an “information train” that tracks Shannon information (Shannon, 2001) over time. Critically, we show that information trains can be summed in a population in a way that is more robust to response heterogeneity and better at representing gaps than the population peristimulus-time-histogram (pPSTH). We first develop a model to generate spike trains with varying levels of burstiness and correlation, then establish metrics to decode the start time and duration of a firing gap from the spike trains, and finally measure decoding performance when we vary the simulation parameters’ burstiness, correlation, firing rate, and population size. We assume a stimulus that depresses the firing rate in proportion to its strength; thus, measuring these two characteristics of the resulting firing gap reveals both when the stimulus is presented and its strength. The goal of these simulations is to understand how each of the model parameters affects a neural population’s ability to represent a gap in spiking.

Our principal result is a theoretical justification for why burstiness exists in some cell types. Under the assumptions of our information train decoder, we find an optimal level of burstiness for identifying the time of stimulus presentation and an asymptotic optimum for identifying stimulus strength. This result could help explain the variability in burstiness between different types of neurons. Finally, we compare our theoretical results to spike trains from recorded mouse RGCs to measure how close each type lies to optimality for each decoding task.

2.1  A Parameterized Simulation of Populations of Tonic and Bursty Neurons

To study the role of higher-than-first-order statistics in the encoding of spike gaps by populations of neurons, first we needed a parameterized method to generate spike trains with systematic variation in these statistics that could accurately model experimental data. Two RGC types that our lab has studied extensively represent cases near the edges of the burstiness range. These RGC types have fairly similar mean tonic firing rates (between 40 and 80 Hz). However, while bursty suppressed-by-contrast (bSbC) RGCs fire in bursts of rapid activity interspersed with periods of silence, OFF sustained alpha (OFFsA) RGCs spike in more regular patterns (see Figure 1A) (Wienbar & Schwartz, 2022).

Figure 1:

A nested renewal process can simulate bursty and tonic firing patterns with only four parameters. (A) Raw traces from bSbC (top) and OFFsA (bottom) in the absence of a stimulus. (B, left to right) ISI distributions resulting from a Poisson process (exponential), renewal process (gamma) and nested renewal process (NR; well fit by sum of gammas). (C) ISI distribution of bSbC and closest NR process match in the simulated data (as determined by Kullback-Leibler divergence) with parameters κ1=6, λ1=180 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=600 spikes/s. (D) ISI distribution of OFFsA and closest NR process match (as determined by KL divergence) with parameters κ1=3, λ1=150 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=500 spikes/s. (E) ISI distributions resulting from NR processes with the same firing rate of 100 Hz, ranging from regular to bursty. Top: κ=3, λ1=300 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=300 spikes/s. Middle: κ1=3, λ1=100 bursts/s, κ2=5, λ2=1500 spikes/s. Bottom: κ1=3, λ1=30 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=3000 spikes/s. Bottom ISI distribution extends out to 500 ms (not shown). Note: ISI distributions are shown on a semilog scale to emphasize differences in their tails. (F) Range of firing rates and burstiness in four RGC types: bSbC and OFFsA as defined in the text, sSbC27 (sustained suppressed-by-contrast type EW27), and sSbC28 (sustained suppressed-by-contrast type EW28). Details of RGC classification are in Goetz et al. (2022).

Figure 1:

A nested renewal process can simulate bursty and tonic firing patterns with only four parameters. (A) Raw traces from bSbC (top) and OFFsA (bottom) in the absence of a stimulus. (B, left to right) ISI distributions resulting from a Poisson process (exponential), renewal process (gamma) and nested renewal process (NR; well fit by sum of gammas). (C) ISI distribution of bSbC and closest NR process match in the simulated data (as determined by Kullback-Leibler divergence) with parameters κ1=6, λ1=180 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=600 spikes/s. (D) ISI distribution of OFFsA and closest NR process match (as determined by KL divergence) with parameters κ1=3, λ1=150 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=500 spikes/s. (E) ISI distributions resulting from NR processes with the same firing rate of 100 Hz, ranging from regular to bursty. Top: κ=3, λ1=300 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=300 spikes/s. Middle: κ1=3, λ1=100 bursts/s, κ2=5, λ2=1500 spikes/s. Bottom: κ1=3, λ1=30 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=3000 spikes/s. Bottom ISI distribution extends out to 500 ms (not shown). Note: ISI distributions are shown on a semilog scale to emphasize differences in their tails. (F) Range of firing rates and burstiness in four RGC types: bSbC and OFFsA as defined in the text, sSbC27 (sustained suppressed-by-contrast type EW27), and sSbC28 (sustained suppressed-by-contrast type EW28). Details of RGC classification are in Goetz et al. (2022).

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A nested renewal process is a doubly stochastic point process that can simulate both bursty and tonic firing patterns with only four parameters (see section 4). This process builds on one of the most commonly used methods to generate spike trains: the Poisson process. The Poisson model of spike generation assumes that the generation of spikes depends only on the instantaneous firing rate (van Vreeswijk, 2010). Using a Poisson process to generate spikes leads to exponentially distributed interspike intervals (ISIs; see Figure 1B, left). One obvious limitation of Poisson spike generation, however, is its inability to model refractoriness, the period of time after a neuron spikes during which it cannot spike again. A renewal process extends the Poisson process to account for the refractory period by allowing the probability of spiking to depend on the time since the last spike, as well as the instantaneous firing rate (van Vreeswijk, 2010; Heeger, 2000). The resulting spike train has gamma-distributed ISIs (see Figure 1B, middle) since refractoriness does not allow for extremely short intervals between spikes.

Although a renewal process is more physiologically accurate than a Poisson process, it still fails to model burstiness. Therefore, we extended the renewal process again by nesting one renewal process inside another (Yannaros, 1988), similar to how others have previously constructed doubly stochastic (although nonrenewal) processes to model spike trains (Bingmer et al., 2011). The outer renewal process parameterized by κ1 (a shape parameter) and λ1 (a rate parameter) determines the number and placement of events that we will call “burst windows” (opportunities for a burst to occur), while the inner renewal process with parameters κ2, λ2 determines the number and placement of spikes within each burst window (see section 4). Both the number of burst windows and the number of spikes are randomly generated within our model, so it is important to note that a burst window can contain as few as zero spikes by chance. Therefore, a nested renewal process can flexibly simulate both regular (1 spike/burst window, as in a standard renewal process) and bursty (many spikes per burst window) firing patterns. The spike trains generated by a nested renewal process have ISIs that are well fit by a sum of gammas distribution (see Figure 1B, right, and Figure 9), where the tall, narrow left mode of the distribution corresponds to the intervals between spikes within burst windows, and the short, wide right mode of the distribution corresponds to the intervals between burst windows. Finally, a nested renewal process models activity of bSbCs and OFFsAs well; tuning its parameters results in good approximations to ISI distributions of experimentally measured bSbC and OFFsA RGCs (see Figures 1C, 1D, and 10).

Note also that all spikes necessarily occur within burst windows via this method of spike generation. This makes the analysis more manageable in some ways but is mechanistically unrealistic; for example, pyramidal neurons generate isolated spikes and bursts using different mechanisms (Larkum et al., 2004). We certainly do not believe that a nested renewal process is faithful to how real neurons generate spikes; we only claim that it produces distributions of spikes that are well matched to the specific RGCs that we are interested in modeling. Because we do not analyze the spike mechanisms in our model further and simply use the output spikes in our analysis, this failure of realism in our model of spike generation does not affect our core results.

Our next goal was to quantify burstiness by a single measure. Because our method of generating spike trains necessarily places every spike within a burst window, we could not use a standard definition of burstiness, such as the number of spikes contained within bursts (as defined by some threshold) divided by the total number of spikes (Oswald et al., 2004). Instead, we reasoned that a cell should be classified as more bursty if it contains, on average, more spikes within its burst windows. However, increasing the firing rate will automatically increase the number of spikes per burst window, so we normalized by the mean firing rate. Therefore, we defined the burstiness factor, β, as the average number of spikes per burst window divided by the firing rate (measured in seconds/burst window). Figure 1E illustrates the effect of different levels of burstiness on the ISI distribution for a fixed firing rate. We prefer this definition to one that thresholds the number of spikes within a certain period of time, since our definition of burstiness is easily computed from the model parameters and eliminates the need to threshold, thus reducing both the number of parameters and arbitrariness of choosing a threshold.

Our quantification of burstiness is dependent on the parameters of the nested renewal process and cannot be applied directly to experimental data. We overcame this issue by using a procedure that matched experimental ISI distributions to simulated ones. Whereas previous work has typically used a time threshold to define burstiness, the large range of spiking statistics we simulated allowed us to take a different approach with our experimental data. We matched ISI distributions from recorded RGCs with simulated data (see Figures 1C and 1D) using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence in order to measure burstiness in our recorded RGCs (see Figure 1F). Using KL divergence allowed us to find the simulated spike train with the most similar ISI distribution, out of all the simulated data, to a given recorded RGC.

In addition to variable burstiness, the nested renewal process allowed us to independently modulate the firing rate and simulate neural populations of any desired size with different levels of pairwise correlation among the spike trains (see Figure 2A; see also section 4). For simplicity, we considered only homogeneous populations in this study: all neurons in a given population were simulated with the same model parameters (firing rate, burstiness, and pairwise correlation level). In other words, the model parameters were varied only on the population level, not on the cell level. While the statistics of heterogeneous populations of neurons can sometimes lead to surprising decoding effects (Ecker et al., 2011; Zylberberg et al., 2016), our choice of homogeneous populations was motivated by the remarkably homogeneous response characteristics of RGCs within a functional type (Goetz et al., 2022). Extensions of this work could investigate populations with heterogeneous spike statistics.

We modeled a stimulus-dependent drop in firing as an instantaneous drop to a firing rate of zero followed by an exponential rise back to the baseline firing rate, controlled by a variable time constant of recovery (see Figure 2B). This stimulus model was chosen because it is consistent with how both bSbC and OFFsA RGCs respond to positive contrast; longer time constants of firing recovery correspond to higher contrast stimuli (Wienbar & Schwartz, 2022; Jacoby et al., 2015). Although this stimulus model was chosen with bSbCs and OFFsAs in mind, it generalizes to any type of neuron that decreases its spontaneous firing rate in a stereotyped way to a stimulus. We also introduced heterogeneity into the population of neurons by varying responsivity to the stimulus, or the proportion of the population that responds to the stimulus, since this is often less than 100% in experimental studies. In other words, we made a subset of the neurons unresponsive to the stimulus by allowing them to continue spiking with baseline statistics after stimulus onset (see Figure 2C). Analogous to models for detection of the onset and duration of an increase in firing, this stimulus allowed us to measure performance in decoding the onset and duration of the gap in firing for each simulated population of neurons.

Figure 2:

A nested renewal process can simulate populations of varying firing rate, burstiness, size, correlation, and responsivity. (A) Populations of varying pairwise (neuron to neuron) correlation simulated using a nested renewal (NR) process. Rows in the rasters correspond to different neurons, not different trials. (B) Population response to varying levels of stimulus strength, modeled with a drop and subsequent rise in firing rate. The green “rate” line refers to firing rate. Population peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) is shown in black. Every neuron in each population has the same recovery time constant, but that varies from top to bottom (shortest for the top population and longest for the bottom) (C) Populations of varying responsivity to the stimulus. Here the recovery time constant is the same for each population, and only the responsivity is varied. Population PSTH is shown in black.

Figure 2:

A nested renewal process can simulate populations of varying firing rate, burstiness, size, correlation, and responsivity. (A) Populations of varying pairwise (neuron to neuron) correlation simulated using a nested renewal (NR) process. Rows in the rasters correspond to different neurons, not different trials. (B) Population response to varying levels of stimulus strength, modeled with a drop and subsequent rise in firing rate. The green “rate” line refers to firing rate. Population peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) is shown in black. Every neuron in each population has the same recovery time constant, but that varies from top to bottom (shortest for the top population and longest for the bottom) (C) Populations of varying responsivity to the stimulus. Here the recovery time constant is the same for each population, and only the responsivity is varied. Population PSTH is shown in black.

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2.2  The Information Train Is Useful for Aggregating Heterogeneous Spike Trains

By aggregating the spike trains of the population of neurons into a one-dimensional signal over time, decoding the onset and duration of a gap in firing can be formulated as a threshold detection task. The choice of threshold determines when the decoder reports that the population is in the baseline state versus the stimulus (or gap detected) state (see Figure 3A), and it naturally implies a trade-off between reaction time (see Figure 3A), the delay from stimulus onset until the threshold is crossed, and false detection rate, the rate at which the threshold is crossed in the absence of the stimulus. To simplify our analysis, we chose a decoder threshold for each population that achieved a fixed low error rate of 0.1 false detections per second (we do show, however, that our results are robust to the choice of threshold in Figure 13). Thus, for the detection task, reaction time, δ, was the sole performance metric for the decoder. The performance metric for the duration task was more complex and is considered in the subsequent section.

Next, we considered the choice of the aggregation method used to combine spike trains across cells. The method most commonly used in such situations is to compute the pPSTH by simply collecting all spikes in the population and filtering to create a continuous rate signal (see Figure 3F left). However, there are many properties of population activity that can carry information besides the average firing rate (Tiesinga et al., 2008; Kumbhani et al., 2007). The pPSTH loses some of the information about the higher-order statistics of each individual spike train that could, in principle, be useful to the decoder. Therefore, we developed a new aggregation method based on the information content of the spike trains. We called the resulting signal the “information train.” (See Figure 11 for more comparisons between the information train and pPSTH.)

The information train method was inspired by neural self-information analysis (Li & Tsien, 2017). In order to build a continuous signal of the information content in a single cell over time, we started by computing a self-information (SI) curve from the ISI distribution using Shannon’s definition (Shannon, 2001): SI=-log2(p), where p is the ISI probability. The SI curve gives the information contained in every observed ISI (see Figure 3B). SI can be thought of as a measure of surprise; very probable ISIs correspond to small SI, while very improbable ISIs correspond to large SI. A spike train can be equally well described by its ISIs as its spike times; for each ISI observed in the spike train, we may use the SI curve to find the amount of information it contains. Neural self-information analysis then replaces each ISI in a spike train with the corresponding SI value (Li & Tsien, 2017), but this creates a discrete signal. Instead, our threshold detection paradigm requires a continuous signal that can be aggregated across cells.

Figure 3:

Population firing rate and population information are two plausible readout mechanisms. (A) Detecting onset and duration of a stimulus (pink) from the signal is a threshold detection task: stimulus onset (blue) is detected when the signal crosses the threshold the first time; stimulus offset (green) is detected when the signal crosses the threshold the second time. (B) ISI distribution (top) and corresponding self-information (SI) curve (bottom). (C) Top: raster and corresponding single cell information train. Bottom: inset showing long ISIs (blue) and short ISIs (green). (D) Population response to a stimulus (pink) with 80% responsivity. (E) SI trains constructed from spiking activity in panel D. (F) Population PSTH (left) and population information train (right) readout from activity in (D). pPSTH detected stimulus onset 50 ms after stimulus presentation; stimulus offset was detected 2 ms after stimulus onset. Information train detected stimulus onset 40 ms after stimulus presentation; stimulus offset was detected 175 ms after stimulus onset. The filter on the pPSTH and the threshold on the information train were both chosen so that there was one false detection in the prestimulus time (the pPSTH touched 0 once and the information train crossed the threshold once in the prestimulus time). (G) pPSTH (left) and population information train (right) readout on stimulus onset detection task as responsivity decreases in a population of 30 neurons. Top: Proportion of trials with readout versus responsivity, where readout does not exist whenever the signal fails to cross the threshold after stimulus onset. Bottom: Reaction time versus responsivity, where reaction time is the time between stimulus onset and stimulus onset detection. Error bars are interquartile range across 10 trials.

Figure 3:

Population firing rate and population information are two plausible readout mechanisms. (A) Detecting onset and duration of a stimulus (pink) from the signal is a threshold detection task: stimulus onset (blue) is detected when the signal crosses the threshold the first time; stimulus offset (green) is detected when the signal crosses the threshold the second time. (B) ISI distribution (top) and corresponding self-information (SI) curve (bottom). (C) Top: raster and corresponding single cell information train. Bottom: inset showing long ISIs (blue) and short ISIs (green). (D) Population response to a stimulus (pink) with 80% responsivity. (E) SI trains constructed from spiking activity in panel D. (F) Population PSTH (left) and population information train (right) readout from activity in (D). pPSTH detected stimulus onset 50 ms after stimulus presentation; stimulus offset was detected 2 ms after stimulus onset. Information train detected stimulus onset 40 ms after stimulus presentation; stimulus offset was detected 175 ms after stimulus onset. The filter on the pPSTH and the threshold on the information train were both chosen so that there was one false detection in the prestimulus time (the pPSTH touched 0 once and the information train crossed the threshold once in the prestimulus time). (G) pPSTH (left) and population information train (right) readout on stimulus onset detection task as responsivity decreases in a population of 30 neurons. Top: Proportion of trials with readout versus responsivity, where readout does not exist whenever the signal fails to cross the threshold after stimulus onset. Bottom: Reaction time versus responsivity, where reaction time is the time between stimulus onset and stimulus onset detection. Error bars are interquartile range across 10 trials.

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Thus, we developed a new analysis to translate a spike train into a continuous self-information train (see Figure 3C, top). We separate ISIs into three cases. In the first case, the current ISI is of the same length as the most probable, or most commonly observed, ISI for the cell. Therefore, this ISI contains the lowest possible SI, which we call the “baseline information.” The SI train always begins at baseline information, and in this case, it remains there for the duration of the ISI. In the second case, the current ISI is longer than the most probable one. However, we do not know that it is longer until the time when it has passed the length of the most probable ISI and the cell has not yet spiked. The SI train reflects this by beginning at baseline information and staying constant for the duration of the most probable ISI, then rising according to the SI curve and stopping at the SI value indicated by the total current ISI (blue sections in Figure 3C, bottom). Finally, in the third case, the current ISI is shorter than the most probable one. In this case, we know that it is shorter as soon as it ends, so the SI train stays at baseline information until the very end of the ISI, then rises instantaneously to the value indicated by the SI curve (green sections in Figure 3C, bottom). At the start of each ISI, the SI train resets to baseline information, meaning that it has no memory of its history and considers subsequent ISIs independently.

For a single cell, the ISI distribution contains all the information in the spike train, so the self-information train is a lossless representation. This can be seen in Figure 3C, top; the self-information train returns to baseline immediately upon registering a spike, so the original spike train is time-aligned with the vertical drops in the information train. However, for multiple cells, there are joint ISI distributions to consider. Assuming independence between cells, the information contained in the population is the sum of the SI trains of each cell (see section 4). Independence is usually not a reasonable assumption, but our experimental data from RGCs measured in the conditions simulated here show low pairwise noise correlations (see Figure 12). Other work has shown that noise correlations in RGC populations can depend on luminance (Ala-Laurila et al., 2011; Ruda et al., 2020) and on the stimulus (Zylberberg et al., 2016), sometimes leading to large possible effects on decoding performance. Correlations can also be induced by a stimulus, and stimulus correlations in populations of neurons are typically larger than noise correlations (Schwartz et al., 2012; Cafaro & Rieke, 2010; Josic et al., 2009; Ponce-Alvarez et al., 2013). Our goal, however, was to study the optimal baseline spike statistics for a task in which all responsive neurons were suppressed by the stimulus simultaneously. Thus, nonindependence in our population before stimulus onset and after stimulus offset was only due to noise correlations. Not only are pairwise noise correlations low in different RGC types, but several studies (Petersen et al., 2001; Averbeck & Lee, 2003; Oram et al., 2001), including in the retina (Nirenberg et al., 2001; Schwartz et al., 2012; Soo et al., 2011), have shown that only a small amount of information is lost when neural responses are decoded using algorithms that ignore noise correlations—on the order of 10% of the total information (but see Ruda et al., 2020, where larger noise correlations caused a 50% reduction in information). Therefore, we have constructed population information trains by summing the SI trains of each cell in the population (see Figure 3F, right) while recognizing that it is a lower bound on the total information present in the full joint distribution of the spike trains. We consider the biological plausibility of such a representation in section 3, but for now it is worth noting that as a one-dimensional signal, the aggregated information train is not as straightforward to compute with neural hardware as a pPSTH but is considerably less complex than a multidimensional manifold aimed at capturing the joint ISI distribution within the population.

Although this choice of construction is justifiable at the low end of correlation, where real RGC types lie, we consider correlations that go up to unity in our simulations. In the case that the population is 100% correlated, the spike trains from all the neurons will be identical, as shown in Figure 2A, and therefore the SI trains from individual neurons will all be exactly the same as well. Intuitively, the population information train should simply be equal to that of a single neuron since additional neurons offer only redundant information, but we have suggested a population information train constructed by summing all the SI trains. In fact, this is not an issue; summing identical SI trains will result in a population information train that is a scaled version of the SI train from any given individual neuron. Since we use the population information train to detect change via a threshold that is based on the false detection rate (rather than measuring the absolute value of the population information train), scaling the information train does not affect the reaction time that we measure from it. This way of constructing the population information train could break down for populations with medium pairwise correlations, but any choice of construction would have a trade-off between accuracy and ease of use, and we are satisfied that this choice is easy to implement, motivated by mathematical reasoning, and, most important, works for low correlations (which is what is actually relevant to the brain) and high correlations.

A critical benefit of the population information train over the pPSTH is that it should automatically amplify the contribution of responsive cells (which will have large SI) in a population relative to unresponsive cells (which will have small SI) without the need to define a cell selection criterion or weighting strategy. To test this intuition, we simulated populations of 30 neurons and varied their responsivity to the stimulus. We decoded the gap onset time for all of these populations using both the pPSTH and the population information train. The pPSTH decoder was extremely sensitive to responsivity, often failing to even reach the detection threshold, and therefore failing to have a readout for reaction time, when fewer than 80% of cells were responsive (see Figure 3G, left). Meanwhile, the population information train decoder approach was robust to very large fractions of unresponsive cells (see Figure 3G, right). Subsequent analyses used the population information train decoder and 100% responsivity, but our conclusions are robust to lower responsivity (see Figure 14).

2.3  There Exists Optimal Burstiness for Minimizing Reaction Time

Having developed a readout mechanism—the population information train—we then used it to decode the onset of a gap in firing by measuring reaction time. We were interested in the effects of multiple parameters on reaction time: burstiness, firing rate, population size, and correlation. For three of these parameters, we had an intuition for how they should affect performance based on one key insight: when trying to decode the time of a gap onset, temporal precision is key to getting accurate estimates. Increasing the firing rate of a population increases temporal precision, so we expected that increasing the firing rate would improve performance (i.e., decrease reaction time). Another way to gain temporal precision is to increase the size of a population; therefore, we also expected population size to have a positive effect on performance. A population that has very low pairwise correlations is unlikely to have many overlapping spikes from different cells, while a population with high correlation is likely to have substantial overlap. This implies that temporal precision, and thus performance, should decrease with correlation. In contrast to the other parameters, the intuition for how burstiness affects performance is not simple and was our central question in this part of the study.

We isolated the effect of burstiness on reaction time by holding firing rate, population size, and correlation constant and found a nonmonotonic relationship (see Figure 4A), suggesting that for each combination of parameters, there may be a different level of burstiness that minimizes reaction time. We could continue in this way to isolate the effects of each parameter by holding the other parameters constant at different values, but the number of parameters, and their ranges, makes this impractical. A more elegant approach is to try to find a unifying principle that can collapse the data. Dimensional analysis gives us the tools to identify such a unifying principle.

Dimensional analysis uncovers the relationships between variables by tracking their physical dimensions over calculations. Since we held responsivity constant at 100%, there are only five relevant quantities altogether: reaction time δ, burstiness β, firing rate λ, population size N, and correlation α. Instead of using our simulation parameters λ1, λ2, κ1, and κ2 in the analysis, we deliberately chose to use only the firing rates and burstiness that arose from these parameters, because firing rate and burstiness can be measured from experimental data, while our simulation parameters cannot, and the results of our analysis should generalize to any simulation choice and should not depend on our particular nested renewal process.

Figure 4:

Optimal burstiness for minimizing reaction time. (A) Reaction time δ versus burstiness β with information train readout. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensional analysis collapses the data for different firing rates. Dimensionless reaction time is plotted against dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Existence of a minimum is robust across correlations. Population is fixed at 5 cells. (E) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. (F) Same as in panel E, but correlation is varied.

Figure 4:

Optimal burstiness for minimizing reaction time. (A) Reaction time δ versus burstiness β with information train readout. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensional analysis collapses the data for different firing rates. Dimensionless reaction time is plotted against dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Existence of a minimum is robust across correlations. Population is fixed at 5 cells. (E) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. (F) Same as in panel E, but correlation is varied.

Close modal
The variables in our problem are all either dimensionless or some transformation of the physical dimension “time,” so there is only one relevant dimension in this problem. A fundamental theorem in dimensional analysis, the Buckingham pi theorem (Buckingham, 1914), says that it is possible to construct exactly 5-1=4 independent dimensionless groups out of these five variables, and those dimensionless groups are functionally related. We chose to make reaction time and burstiness dimensionless by multiplying by firing rate (brackets denote the dimension of the quantity inside and a dimensionless quantity is said to have dimension 1), so we obtain the following four dimensionless groups:
[λδ]=[λβ]=[N]=[α]=1.
(2.1)
We may write any one of these dimensionless quantities as a function of the rest, but it is difficult to fit functions of three variables, so we fix population size and correlation so that the function no longer depends on them, and then we have
λδ=f(λβ).
(2.2)

Equation 2.2 immediately reveals that both reaction time and burstiness are inversely proportional to the firing rate. While burstiness was defined in such a way that it must be inversely proportional to firing rate (see section 4), it is illuminating that reaction time is inversely proportional as well. This basic theoretical result of dimensional analysis gives us much more information than our intuition, which simply told us that reaction time should decrease with firing rate.

The practical implication of the Buckingham pi theorem is that we may collapse all the data for different firing rates together, with no pattern, so we can analyze them together. The functional form of f (see equation 2.2) is now possible to find by fitting (see Figure 4B). There is a clear minimum in the data, demonstrating a level of (dimensionless) burstiness that is optimal for minimizing reaction time across all firing rates. We chose a polynomial fit of degree 5 to describe the data, since that is a reliable way to find the minimum. We want to emphasize here that we are not claiming that the data have a polynomial form; we are only concerned with finding the minimum, and any other good fit would give the same minimum. Now we may separately vary population size and correlation (see Figures 4C and 4D), illustrating that the existence of optimal burstiness for minimizing reaction time is robust for both parameters. The x and y values of the minima of these curves completely describe how optimal burstiness and minimum reaction time depend on population size and correlation. Simply dividing the x and y values of the minimum by the firing rate of the population, we obtain the exact (dimensionful) optimal burstiness and minimum reaction time. Minimum reaction time decreases with population size and increases with correlation (as predicted by our intuition), while optimal burstiness is relatively constant with both parameters, indicating that there is one level of burstiness optimal for detecting stimulus onset at any population size and correlation.

Note that if we were to include the internal simulation parameters λ1, λ2, κ1, and κ2 in the analysis, we should also control for κ1, κ2, and λ2/λ1 (as well as controlling for population size and correlation) when we investigate the relationship between dimensionless burstiness and reaction time in equation 2.2. Our choice not to include these parameters results in more noise in Figure 4B, but also makes our analysis much more generalizable, as discussed previously, and allows us to draw conclusions with the confidence that they apply to any simulation choice and, more important, to real neurons.

2.4  There Exists an Asymptotic Optimal Burstiness for Discriminating Stimulus Strength

Besides “when,” another fundamental question to ask about a stimulus is: How strong is it? In our model, stimulus strength corresponds to the duration of the gap in spiking because we varied stimulus strength by changing the recovery time of the firing rate (see Figure 2B). We measured the gap length in the information train, or the duration of time between stimulus onset and offset detection (see Figure 3F, right), in order to make deductions about how the length of the gap in spiking is affected by the suppressed firing rate (see Figure 5A). The performance metric here—the measure of how well a population can discriminate the stimulus strength—is essentially the accuracy with which the time constant of recovery (which we varied from 50 to 3000 ms) is captured by the gap length measurement. Therefore, the performance metric should be the error in the relationship between gap length and the time constant. However, it is not immediately obvious what the relationship between these two variables actually is, much less how much scatter there is around it. Dimensional analysis is again a useful tool here. There are six relevant quantities to this problem: gap length γ, recovery time constant τ, burstiness β, firing rate λ, population size N, and correlation α. Applying the Buckingham pi theorem and setting all but two of the dimensionless groups (see section 4) to be constant (so that we obtain a function of one variable that relates the gap length and time constant of recovery), we have
λγ=f(λτ).
(2.3)

By fitting, it is clear that there is a power law relationship between these variables (see Figure 5B). Now, for each combination of parameters for which we have several trials of gap length measurements, we chose the performance metric to be the scatter in the data around the power law function suggested by dimensional analysis (see Figure 5C), which we quantified with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE; see section 4).

Figure 5:

Gap length is related to the recovery time constant by a power law. (A) Gap length γ vs. time constant of recovery τ. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, dimensionless burstiness (λβ) is fixed at 3 spikes/burst, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensionless gap length versus dimensionless time constant. Population is 5 cells, correlation is 0 to 0.2, and dimensionless burstiness is 3 spikes/burst. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Dashed line is y=x, and exponent of power law fit is 0.6. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Performance metric is the scatter in the data measured with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE). Population is 5 cells, correlation is 0 to 0.2, dimensionless burstiness is 3 spikes/burst, and firing rate is 60 Hz. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit.

Figure 5:

Gap length is related to the recovery time constant by a power law. (A) Gap length γ vs. time constant of recovery τ. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, dimensionless burstiness (λβ) is fixed at 3 spikes/burst, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensionless gap length versus dimensionless time constant. Population is 5 cells, correlation is 0 to 0.2, and dimensionless burstiness is 3 spikes/burst. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Dashed line is y=x, and exponent of power law fit is 0.6. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Performance metric is the scatter in the data measured with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE). Population is 5 cells, correlation is 0 to 0.2, dimensionless burstiness is 3 spikes/burst, and firing rate is 60 Hz. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit.

Close modal
Now that we have a performance metric, we wanted to see how it depended on burstiness in particular, as well as firing rate, population size, and correlation. Once again, we could isolate the effects of each of these parameters by holding all the others constant (see Figure 6A), but using dimensional analysis simplifies the problem by collapsing data. The relevant quantities are the performance metric NRMSE ε, burstiness β, firing rate λ, population size N, and correlation α, so setting population size and correlation to be constant, we have
ε=f(λβ).
(2.4)
Figure 6:

Optimal burstiness for discriminating stimulus strength. (A) NRMSE ε versus burstiness β. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) NRMSE versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of an asymptote is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Existence of an asymptote is robust across correlations. Population is fixed at 5 cells. (E) Top: Asymptotic NRMSE against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. (F) Same as in panel E but correlation is varied.

Figure 6:

Optimal burstiness for discriminating stimulus strength. (A) NRMSE ε versus burstiness β. Population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) NRMSE versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of an asymptote is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Existence of an asymptote is robust across correlations. Population is fixed at 5 cells. (E) Top: Asymptotic NRMSE against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. (F) Same as in panel E but correlation is varied.

Close modal

While burstiness is still inversely proportional to the firing rate, equation 2.4 reveals that NRMSE is constant with firing rate. In other words, the ability to decode the duration of a gap in firing rate does not depend on the spontaneous firing rate. Intuitively, this may be because if a downstream neuron “knows” the spontaneous firing rate of its inputs, it can use that to deduce how many times they should have fired during a gap but did not, therefore giving the length of the firing gap. We expect that this may not hold true in the limit of very low spontaneous rates, where the gap is barely detectable, but we did not simulate spontaneous rates below 10 Hz because OFFsAs and bSbCs do not generally have spontaneous rates below that.

Plotting reveals that NRMSE decays to a nonzero constant (see Figure 6B). Interestingly, there is a large range of burstiness that optimizes NRMSE, in contrast to how there was a single optimal value of burstiness for minimizing reaction time. We chose to fit an asymptotic decay function to the data (see section 4) in order to characterize the optimal value of NRMSE. By the nature of an asymptotic function, the fitting function continues to decay very slightly where the data had already become constant. We chose to study the point at which the fit reached 90% of the asymptote because any burstiness larger than this is essentially optimal.

Next we separately varied population size and correlation (see Figures 6C and 6D), which showed us that the existence of asymptotic NRMSE and a large range of burstiness resulting in this optimal performance was robust for both parameters. Asymptotic NRMSE decreases with population size and is relatively constant with correlation, while optimal burstiness is constant with population size and increases with correlation, implying that the level(s) of burstiness optimal for discriminating stimulus strength is not affected by population size for populations larger than five cells.

2.5  bSbC RGCs Have Close to Optimal Burstiness for Gap Detection

Having established that optimal burstiness exists for decoding the onset and duration of a gap in firing, our next question was how the baseline spike statistics of the RGC types we studied relate to this optimum. Recall that we fit functions that describe how reaction time (see Figure 4) and NRMSE (see Figure 6) depend on dimensionless burstiness. Dimensionless burstiness is simply burstiness multiplied by firing rate, so another way to represent the information in Figures 4 and 6 is in three dimensions instead of two: the dependence of reaction time (and NRMSE) on burstiness and firing rate is shown in Figure 7. We chose to represent this information with dimensionful burstiness and firing rate instead of dimensionless burstiness because we measured those parameters directly from the data and because different cell types could potentially achieve the same dimensionless burstiness value with different combinations of firing rates and burstiness. We compared the performance of different types of experimentally recorded cells by using their firing rate and burstiness to predict how quickly they would detect stimulus onset (see Figure 7A) and how accurately they would discriminate stimulus strength (see Figure 7B) according to our model. We set the population size at five cells and the correlation in the physiological range of 0 to 0.2, but as we saw earlier, optimal burstiness is negligibly affected by the population size so these results apply to any population size. Both bSbCs and OFFsAs are quite good at detecting a stimulus quickly, although bSbCs are closer to optimal reaction time, while both types of sustained suppressed-by-contrast RGCs are much worse at this task. However, Figure 7B suggests that bSbCs are by far the best at discriminating stimulus strength, since their burstiness puts them right on the lower bound of optimal burstiness; OFFsA RGCs do not perform nearly as well. Therefore, bSbC RGCs have spiking patterns that enable them to both react to a stimulus coming on as quickly as possible and detect the strength of that stimulus with great accuracy.

Figure 7:

bSbCs RGCs have close to optimal burstiness. (A) False color plot showing reaction time predicted from firing rate and burstiness, as described by the function in Figure 4B. The position of four RGC types on the surface is shown. Population size is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 to 0.2. (B) False color plot showing NRMSE predicted from firing rate and burstiness, as described by the function in Figure 6B. The position of four RGC types on the surface is shown. Population size is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 to 0.2.

Figure 7:

bSbCs RGCs have close to optimal burstiness. (A) False color plot showing reaction time predicted from firing rate and burstiness, as described by the function in Figure 4B. The position of four RGC types on the surface is shown. Population size is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 to 0.2. (B) False color plot showing NRMSE predicted from firing rate and burstiness, as described by the function in Figure 6B. The position of four RGC types on the surface is shown. Population size is 5 cells, and correlation is 0 to 0.2.

Close modal

To investigate the role of burstiness in population decoding of firing gaps, we simulated spike trains for populations of neurons using a nested renewal process. This strategy allowed us to capture the statistics of recorded spike trains from RGCs and also to vary burstiness parametrically (see Figures 1 and 2). We then developed a new analysis to combine spike trains across a population into an information train and demonstrated that this method is more robust to unresponsive cells than a population PSTH (see Figure 3). Using the information trains of different simulated populations, we discovered that there is an optimal level of burstiness for detecting the onset of a firing gap that is inversely proportional to firing rate and relatively independent of population size and correlation (see Figure 4). There is also an optimal range of burstiness for detecting gap duration that is relatively independent of all of these other parameters (see Figures 5 and 6). Finally, we considered the baseline spike statistics of four RGC types in the context of these theoretical results and revealed that the burst patterns of bSbC RGCs make them nearly optimal for detecting both the onset and the strength of a contrast step (see Figure 7).

3.1  Could a Biological Circuit Represent the Information Train?

For a single neuron’s spike train, self-information could, in principle, be represented by a relatively simple three-neuron, three-synapse circuit (see Figure 8A). Let us first consider ISIs longer than the mode of the distribution. Our circuit needs to represent these periods of silence with an increasing, positive signal (see Figure 8B, red-shaded region). A disinhibition circuit with facilitation at the first synapse achieves this pattern. Imagine a circuit in which decoder neuron D is tonically inhibited by interneuron I, and I is excited by RGC R. Decreases in the baseline spike rate of R will lead to a decreased spike rate in I and, thus, disinhibition of D. If the synapse from R to I is facilitating and near saturation at baseline, then small decreases in the spike rate of R will have a modest effect on I (and therefore on D), but larger gaps will cause more profound firing rate reductions in I and correspondingly larger activations of D. For ISIs shorter than the mode of the distribution (see Figure 8B, yellow shaded region), this disinhibition circuit could be counterbalanced with a direct excitatory connection from R to D. This synapse would increase the activation of D for short ISIs, that is, increases in the firing rate of R. We implemented this circuit in a toy model and found that indeed, it is able to capture the basic shape of information trains (see Figure 8D). This is not the result of overfitting because we used separate spike trains in the training set for fitting the model parameters and the testing set. Importantly, this circuit could easily scale to represent the full information train in a population of neurons. Since the information trains of individual neurons sum to the population train in our framework, a decoder neuron for the population could integrate parallel copies of the circuit (see Figure 8C).

Figure 8:

Biologically plausible circuit for representing the information train. (A) Circuit model for self-information of a spike train from neuron R. (B) Schematic of the parts of the ISI distribution of neuron R that could be learned by different synapses in the circuit. (C) Schematic of population information train circuit comprising parallel circuits for the self-information of each individual neuron. (D) Example showing a spike train (black ticks) and the corresponding normalized information train (red) and output of the decoder neuron from this model circuit. The circuit model was a simplified version without synaptic plasticity (see section 4). The fit parameters were as follows: τRI=8.80ms, HalfMaxRI=8.52, SlopeRI=89.4, τID=19.7ms, HalfMaxID=0.47, SlopeID=0.001, HalfMaxRD=2.66, SlopeRD=0.02.

Figure 8:

Biologically plausible circuit for representing the information train. (A) Circuit model for self-information of a spike train from neuron R. (B) Schematic of the parts of the ISI distribution of neuron R that could be learned by different synapses in the circuit. (C) Schematic of population information train circuit comprising parallel circuits for the self-information of each individual neuron. (D) Example showing a spike train (black ticks) and the corresponding normalized information train (red) and output of the decoder neuron from this model circuit. The circuit model was a simplified version without synaptic plasticity (see section 4). The fit parameters were as follows: τRI=8.80ms, HalfMaxRI=8.52, SlopeRI=89.4, τID=19.7ms, HalfMaxID=0.47, SlopeID=0.001, HalfMaxRD=2.66, SlopeRD=0.02.

Close modal

While this proposed circuit could capture the general shape of the information train—increased activation in D for either increases or decreases in the spike rate of R—the degree to which its activation is proportional to self-information depends on the circuit’s ability to learn the ISI distribution of R. This learning would presumably take place through plasticity at each of the three synapses in the circuit. There is certainly evidence that neural circuits can represent probability distributions and perform probabilistic inference (Pouget et al., 2013; Dabagia et al., 2022). While the baseline spike statistics of RGCs might be dynamically altered with environmental factors, like mean luminance, they also may adapt to these factors as light adaptation in retinal circuits is especially robust (Schwartz, 2021). It is also unclear to what degree of accuracy the circuit needs to capture the ISI distribution to be effective as a decoder of gaps in firing in populations of R neurons. Modeling such biologically plausible circuits in the context of the information train is a rich area for future investigations of synaptic learning rules and their ability to represent probability distributions.

3.2  Baseline Spike Statistics Can Be Optimized for Different Tasks

The result that some burstiness higher than minimum is optimal for identifying the time of stimulus presentation and stimulus strength leads us to a principle that has a long history in population spike analysis (Kepecs & Lisman, 2003; Oswald et al., 2004; Palmer et al., 2021): different spiking patterns are optimal for encoding different stimulus features. We extended these results by demonstrating two concrete examples of how optimal encoding of different stimulus features depends on baseline spiking statistics. The theoretical implication of this is that different cell types may display different baseline spiking statistics depending on the stimulus features they encode.

Earlier we provided intuition about the effects of firing rate, population size, and correlation on reaction time. The same intuition holds for performance on decoding the duration of a gap in firing, since it is also dependent on temporal precision. Now we will lay out our intuition for why there exists optimal burstiness for both tasks, which will explain why it makes sense that specific spiking patterns are optimal for encoding different stimulus features. We again attribute increased performance on these tasks to increased temporal precision. As explained earlier, a population could theoretically increase its temporal precision by increasing its firing rate or its size or decreasing its cell correlations; however, there are physiological limits to a population’s firing rate and correlation, and the size of the population of visual neurons activated by a stimulus is related to the size of the stimulus (Rodieck, 1998). In contrast, rearranging the pattern of spikes without changing the number of spikes generated is something that a cell could do without expending extra energy, and if it rearranges its spiking pattern so that it has long periods of silence and short periods of rapid activity, or bursts, then it has great temporal precision within those bursts. Now imagine that that cell is part of a population with low pairwise cell correlations (see Figure 11); then the bursts from different cells would be staggered in time, allowing the population as a whole to have excellent temporal precision. Therefore, it is clear that increasing burstiness can improve performance. Following this line of thinking, it is also easy to see why too much burstiness would be harmful: if the population is trying to detect stimulus onset, the periods of silence between bursts could become so long that even with many cells, it is very possible that the population would entirely miss the stimulus simply because no cell was in the middle of a burst when the stimulus was presented. In addition, the fact that firing rate, population size, and correlation had effects on performance that were predictable from this intuition lends further credibility to our result that there is an optimal level of burstiness for identifying the timing and strength of a stimulus.

An intriguing part of our result was that the optimal amount of burstiness for gap detection is very close to two spikes per burst window (see Figure 4). Our intuition about temporal precision and sampling is relevant to the location of this minimum as well. Two spikes in a burst window represent a single, short ISI. It seems that the most efficient way to gain temporal precision for gap detection at a fixed firing rate is to group spikes into pairs where the short ISIs are used to encode time at high precision. Adding more spikes to the burst is counter productive because at a fixed firing rate, it would necessitate longer intervals between bursts where neurons are unable to represent a rate decrease.

We found that the baseline firing statistics of bSbC RGCs lie close to the optimum for performance on two gap detection tasks (see Figure 7), but what about the other three high-baseline-rate RGC types we analyzed and the many lower baseline rate ones we did not analyze? It is important to consider (1) that the gap detection tasks we defined are only two out of many decoding tasks that must be performed simultaneously across the population of RGCs, and (2) that biological constraints, including the energy expenditure of maintaining a high spike rate, also likely drove the evolution of the different RGC types. Like bSbC RGCs, sustained (s)SbC RGCs also signal exclusively with gaps in firing, but they do so at a substantially longer timescale (Jacoby & Schwartz, 2018; Schwartz, 2021). Perhaps for these RGCs, the energetic benefit of maintaining a lower baseline firing rate is worth the cost of lower temporal resolution in gap detection because they represent time more coarsely than bSbC RGCs. The OFF alpha RGCs (OFFsA and OFFtA) respond to different stimuli with either increases or decreases in baseline firing (Homann & Freed, 2017; Van Wyk et al., 2009), and OFFtA RGCs have been implicated in the detection of several specific visual features (Munch et al., 2009; Krishnamoorthy et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2021), so for these RGC types, performance in representing spike gaps needs to be balanced against metrics for their other functions.

3.3  The Information Train as a Way to Track Population-Level Changes in Spike Patterns

Our work has practical as well as theoretical implications: we proposed the information train readout, which tracks the information in a population over time and is more comprehensive and robust than a standard pPSTH readout. For example, when using a pPSTH to analyze a population of direction selective cells without first finding the preferred directions of every single cell in the population, the responses from cells preferring opposite directions will cancel each other out, leading to a pPSTH that fails to reflect change due to the stimulus. The same effect will be observed if a light-dark edge is presented to a population of ON or OFF cells. Of course, it is possible to remove this effect by classifying each cell’s response to the stimulus first, but that can be time-consuming if the population size is large and it requires an (often arbitrary) supervised classification step. The information train will reflect a stimulus change in both of these cases even when the whole population is analyzed together. This is because any ISI length out of the ordinary (i.e., different from the most probable one) causes a positive deflection in the information train, so no matter whether a cell’s firing rate increases or decreases in response to a stimulus, the population information rises. Therefore, the information train is a convenient readout mechanism to use because it does not require any assumptions to cluster cells, even when the population recording is heterogeneous. It is also easy to implement by simply fitting the observed ISI distributions in the absence of a stimulus to a gamma (many neural circuits have ISI patterns well fit by a gamma distribution; Li et al., 2017) or sum of gammas distribution (depending on whether the cells in question are bursty).

3.4  Limitations and Future Directions

We have shown that the information train can capture more and different information than the pPSTH. Future work could use this analytical tool for discovery of how populations of neurons represent stimulus features by computing the filter between stimulus variables and SI, like continuous-signal generalization of an SI-triggered average.

The information train, however, is not a complete description of the full mutual information in the population since it assumes independence. The natural extension of SI to a population is pointwise mutual information (PMI) (Shannon, 2001), which measures the association of single events. Much like entropy is the expected value of SI, mutual information is the expected value of PMI. In the future, a more accurate way to construct the population information train would be to use PMI: the value of the information train at time t is given by measuring the time since the last spike for each cell in the population and then calculating the PMI in the coincidence of those events. This is quite difficult to implement because it requires describing the joint ISI distributions. Not only is it necessary to estimate the joint ISI probabilities in the absence of a stimulus, when we can generate a lot of data but it is still difficult to estimate the joint probabilities; it is also necessary to be able to accurately extrapolate those joint ISI distributions in order to deduce the stimulus response. Namely, we need to be able to accurately estimate the very tails of the joint ISI distributions if we still assume a stimulus that depresses firing rate. We were able to do this in our study by fitting our observed ISI distributions with a sum of gammas distribution (see Figure 10), but it could be dangerous to first estimate the joint ISI distributions and then estimate their tail values. Even small errors in the density estimation would lead to drastically different results, since PMI (much like SI) amplifies the significance of extremely improbable events. In other words, small differences in p lead to large differences in log2(p) for low p. Calculating the true PMI of the population over time is an important future direction, and it will be needed to extend this analysis to populations with high noise correlations (Ruda et al., 2020), but it has to be done carefully.

Another limitation of this study is that we have not formally seen how sensitive the information train readout is to more complex tasks and stimuli. We posit that the information train should be able to flexibly reflect any change in spiking patterns at the population level since every observed ISI different from the most common one registers a change. However, we only compared the information train to the standard pPSTH for one task; it might be illuminating to compare readouts from the information train and pPSTH on more complex stimuli in the future.

Not only is there potential follow-up research stemming directly from this study, such as constructing the population information train using PMI and exploring more complicated stimuli, but in addition, the information train will, we hope, be used to investigate more complex statistics of spiking outside the retina, such as statistics exhibited by Purkinje cells (Kase et al., 1980; Ohtsuka & Noda, 1995) and other variables that affect information transmission. The power of the information train is not limited to applications in neural spiking; it can be used to study any change detection task. For example, it could be applied to the problem of detecting auditory frequency change, where gaps are similarly important. The theoretical framework of the information train is general enough to aid research in a wide variety of directions.

4.1  Model of Spike Generation

In the Poisson model of spike generation, the instantaneous firing rate is the only force that generates spikes. Assuming a constant firing rate λ over time, the number of spikes within a (small) interval of time Δt is a Poisson distributed random variable with parameter λ. Using the Poisson probability density function,
P(1spikeduringΔt)=λΔt.
(4.1)

One can therefore generate a sequence of uniformly distributed random numbers {xn} in order to determine when to generate a spike: if xi<λΔt, generate a spike in time bin i. Since the number of spikes within any interval of time is a Poisson random variable with parameter λ, the exponential distribution Exp(λ) describes the time between spikes (i.e., the interspike interval distribution).

A renewal process extends the Poisson process to depend on both the instantaneous firing rate and the time since the previous spike. One way to model this is to simply generate a Poisson spike train with rate parameter λ and delete all but every κth spike. A gamma distribution predicts the wait time until the κth Poisson process event, so the ISI distribution of a renewal process generated in this way is described by Gamma(κ,λ). This is a natural extension of the Poisson process since when κ is 1, the ISI distribution is Gamma(1,λ)=Exp(λ). The average ISI length is κλ, and therefore the average firing rate is λκ.

We extended the renewal process again, nesting one renewal process inside another. The outer renewal process with parameters κ1, λ1 determines the number and placement of burst windows, with an average of λ1κ1 burst windows per second. We allowed λ1 to vary between 30 and 600 bursts per second, and κ1 to vary between 3 and 6 in order to obtain a range of 10 to 100 burst windows per second. The inner renewal process with parameters κ2, λ2 determines the number and placement of spikes within each burst window, with an average of λ2κ2 spikes per second within each burst window. We let λ2 range from 300 to 6000 spikes per second, and κ2 range from 3 to 6. Thus, the average spiking rate within a burst window ranged from 100 to 1000 spikes per second. We inserted spikes generated by the inside process into the burst windows by setting a burst window length τb, which we chose to be 10 ms. This results in an average of λ2τbκ2 spikes per burst window, with a range of 1 to 10 spikes per burst window, and therefore an average firing rate,
λ=λ1λ2τbκ1κ2,
(4.2)
with a range of 10 to 100 Hz.

As a note, the burst window length τb was chosen based on anecdotal observations of the typical length of burst periods in experimental recordings of bSbCs, but it is actually arbitrary. Changing the burst length would not change the ISI distributions we simulated or affect our results, because the other nested renewal process parameters can simply be changed in proportion to the burst length in order to generate the same spike train.

We varied pairwise correlations between nested renewal process spike trains by using a shared versus random seed strategy. Just as for a Poisson process, we needed two sequences (for the inner and outer renewal processes) of uniformly distributed random numbers, {xn} and {yn}, to determine when to generate spikes (see above). We first generated two shared sequences of uniform random numbers, {xnshared} and {ynshared}, then for each cell in the population generated new independent sequences of uniformly distributed numbers, {xnindependent} and {ynindependent}. For each cell, {xn} was constructed by drawing from {xnshared} with probability αx and {xnindependent} with probability 1-αx. The other sequence of uniform numbers, {yn}, was constructed similarly with weight αy. The choices of αx and αy control the pairwise correlations of the inner and outer renewal processes; thus, varying them separately varies the correlation between burst windows or the correlation between spikes within burst windows. We measured cross-correlations between all pairs of spike trains in the population and averaged to obtain the overall correlation reported.

4.2  Burstiness

Burstiness β is the average number of spikes per burst window normalized by firing rate: β=λ2τbλκ2. Using equation 4.2, the formula for burstiness can be simplified to β=κ1λ1. The range of burstiness is 0.01 to 0.1 seconds per burst window.

4.3  Population Readout Mechanisms

Self-information is defined as SI=-log2(p) (Shannon, 2001), where p is the ISI probability. We constructed a population information train by summing individual SI trains. This implicitly assumes that cells are independent since if independence holds, then
-log2(p(x,y))=-log2(p(x)p(y))=-log2(p(x))-log2(p(y)).
(4.3)

In order to measure reaction time and gap length in the information train, we set a threshold on the information train such that the error rate was 0.1 false crossings per second. We set the threshold for the pPSTH readout mechanism at 0 and set the filter length such that the pPSTH reached 0 with a rate of 0.1 errors per second during the prestimulus time.

Population information train options B and C considered in Figure 15 were constructed as follows:

  • Option B: The population information train is the SI train constructed from the ensemble spike train or the spike train obtained by overlaying all the spike trains in the population.

  • Option C: The population information train is constructed by summing the SI trains for each cell in the population, but we let ISIs shorter than the most probable one have negative deflections in each SI train, while longer ISIs still have positive deflections.

The analogous threshold (resulting in 0.1 errors/s) was placed on the information trains in options B and C.

4.4  Dimensional Analysis

We used dimensional analysis to find the relationship between gap length and the time constant of recovery (see Figures 5A and 5B). There are six relevant quantities to this problem: gap length γ, recovery time constant τ, burstiness β, firing rate λ, population size N, and correlation α. These are all either dimensionless or some transformation of the physical dimension “time,” so we can construct 6-1=5 independent dimensionless groups related by an unknown function. We chose to make gap length, the recovery time constant, and burstiness dimensionless by multiplying by firing rate, so we have
[λγ]=[λτ]=[λβ]=[N]=[α]=1.
(4.4)

In order to obtain a function of one variable, which relates gap length and the time constant, we set dimensionless burstiness, population size, and correlation to be constant and obtained equation 2.3.

Once we defined a performance metric (NRMSE) for the gap length decoding task (see Figure 5C), we used dimensional analysis again to find its dependence on burstiness and the other model parameters (see Figures 6A and 6B). The relevant quantities are the performance metric NRMSE ε, burstiness β, firing rate λ, population size N, and correlation α, so we may construct 5-1=4 independent dimensionless groups related by a function. We again chose to make burstiness dimensionless by multiplying by firing rate, so we have
[ε]=[λβ]=[N]=[α]=1.
(4.5)

Fixing population size and correlation so that the function no longer depends on them, we obtain equation 2.4.

4.5  Circuit Model

A circuit model with three synapses is described in Figure 8 and associated text in section 3. Each synapse was modeled as integrating over time as an exponential with one parameter followed by a sigmoidal nonlinearity with two parameters (HalfMax and Slope) according to
f(x)=11+e-(x-HalfMax)Slope.
(4.6)

We used Matlab’s nonlinear function minimizer fmincon to minimize the mean squared error between the model output and the information train using separate training and testing sets. The fmincon function was run 100 times using a different initial point in parameter space each time. The initial point was made by sampling from a bounded uniform distribution specific to each parameter: τRI[10,30], HalfMaxRI[0.1,0.6], SlopeRI[0.05,0.4], HalfMaxID[0.1,0.5], SlopeID[0.001,0.01], τID[0.5,4], HalfMaxRI[0.5,3], SlopeRD[0.1,1.5]. All parameters were constrained to be strictly positive during the optimization.

4.6  Fitting Routines

From dimensional analysis, we obtained equation 2.4. Plotting λβ against ε revealed that f is an asymptotically decaying function (see Figure 6B). We therefore let f be of the form
f(x)=a+bxn.
(4.7)

The range of n obtained from this fitting routine was 0.5 to 4 with no systematic trends, so n was taken as 2, which results in essentially the same good fits and reduces the number of fitting parameters to two. We also considered an exponential fit, but ultimately rejected it because the fit was not as good as the fit given by equation 4.7 with fixed n, and it requires three fitting parameters instead of two. Goodness of fit of equation 4.7 with variable n as well as fixed n, and the exponential fit, were all assessed with root mean square error (RMSE) returned by the fitting routine.

We fit the power law relationship between the dimensionless time constant and the dimensionless gap length (see Figures 5B and 5C) by fitting a linear relationship of their logarithms. Goodness of fit was assessed with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE). The NRMSE of an estimator y^ with respect to n observed values of a parameter y is the square root of the mean squared error, normalized by the mean of the measured data, y¯: NRMSE=1y¯i=1n1n(yi-y^i)2.

We fit ISI distributions of simulated (see Figure 9) and experimentally recorded (see Figure 10) data by minimizing the mean square error of the log of the data and log of a sum of gammas distribution, since there was a large dynamic range in the data. This effectively minimizes the percentage difference between the data and the fitting function. Goodness of fit was assessed with RMSE returned by the fitting routine.

4.7  RGC Spike Recordings

RGCs were recorded in cell-attached configuration in whole-mount preparations of mouse retina as described previously (Wienbar & Schwartz, 2022; Jacoby et al., 2015). Animals were C57/Bl6 mice of both sexes obtained from Jackson Labs (strain 000664) or bred in our lab. Animals were between 4 and 12 weeks of age. All animal procedures were performed under the registered protocols approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northwestern University. Cell typology was determined using the methods described in Goetz et al. (2022). Baseline spiking was recorded at a mean luminance of 0 and 1000 isomerizations (R*) per rod per second.

4.8  Data and Code Availability

All simulated data reported in this paper are publicly available at https://gin.g-node.org/sdurian/Gap-Detection.git. Experimental data reported are available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/2pdwp5xnmv/1. All code written in support of this publication is available at https://github.com/sdurian/Gap-Detection.

Figure 9:

Nested renewal process ISI histograms are well fit by a sum of gamma distribution. (A) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=4, λ1=200 bursts/s, κ2=4, λ2=400 spikes/s. Firing rate λ=50 Hz, burstiness β=0.02 s/burst. Goodness of fit of the sum of gammas distribution is reported as root mean square error (RMSE). (B) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=4, λ1=100 bursts/s, κ2=5, λ2=1000 spikes/s. λ=50 Hz, β=0.04 s/burst. (C) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=6, λ1=96 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=1500 spikes/s. λ=80 Hz, β=0.06 s/burst. (D) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=5, λ1=50 bursts/s, κ2=6, λ2=6000 spikes/s. λ=100 Hz, β=0.1 s/burst.

Figure 9:

Nested renewal process ISI histograms are well fit by a sum of gamma distribution. (A) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=4, λ1=200 bursts/s, κ2=4, λ2=400 spikes/s. Firing rate λ=50 Hz, burstiness β=0.02 s/burst. Goodness of fit of the sum of gammas distribution is reported as root mean square error (RMSE). (B) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=4, λ1=100 bursts/s, κ2=5, λ2=1000 spikes/s. λ=50 Hz, β=0.04 s/burst. (C) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=6, λ1=96 bursts/s, κ2=3, λ2=1500 spikes/s. λ=80 Hz, β=0.06 s/burst. (D) ISI distribution from NR process with parameters κ1=5, λ1=50 bursts/s, κ2=6, λ2=6000 spikes/s. λ=100 Hz, β=0.1 s/burst.

Close modal
Figure 10:

RGC ISI histograms are well fit by a sum of gamma distribution. (A) ISI distributions of experimentally recorded bSbCs with sum of gammas fits. Top is the same cell as in Figure 1C. Goodness of fit is reported as RMSE. (B) ISI distributions of experimentally recorded OFFsAs with sum of gammas fits. Top is the same cell as in Figure 1D.

Figure 10:

RGC ISI histograms are well fit by a sum of gamma distribution. (A) ISI distributions of experimentally recorded bSbCs with sum of gammas fits. Top is the same cell as in Figure 1C. Goodness of fit is reported as RMSE. (B) ISI distributions of experimentally recorded OFFsAs with sum of gammas fits. Top is the same cell as in Figure 1D.

Close modal
Figure 11:

More information train and PSTH comparisons. (A) Example spike train (top), PSTH (middle), and self-information train (bottom) for one neuron, which increases firing rate to stimulus 1 and suppresses firing rate to stimulus 2. (B) pPSTH (middle) and population information train (bottom) readouts for a population of two neurons, one of which increases firing rate to a stimulus and the other of which suppresses firing rate.

Figure 11:

More information train and PSTH comparisons. (A) Example spike train (top), PSTH (middle), and self-information train (bottom) for one neuron, which increases firing rate to stimulus 1 and suppresses firing rate to stimulus 2. (B) pPSTH (middle) and population information train (bottom) readouts for a population of two neurons, one of which increases firing rate to a stimulus and the other of which suppresses firing rate.

Close modal
Figure 12:

Noise correlations are low. (A) Cross-correlation histograms from a pair of bSbCs. Dashed lines are null (epoch-shuffled) correlation. Paired activity was recorded at a mean luminance of 0 and 1000 isomerizations (R*) per rod per second. (B) Cross-correlation histograms from a pair of OFFsAs. Dashed lines are null correlation. Paired activity was recorded at a mean luminance of 0 and 1000 isomerizations (R*) per rod per second.

Figure 12:

Noise correlations are low. (A) Cross-correlation histograms from a pair of bSbCs. Dashed lines are null (epoch-shuffled) correlation. Paired activity was recorded at a mean luminance of 0 and 1000 isomerizations (R*) per rod per second. (B) Cross-correlation histograms from a pair of OFFsAs. Dashed lines are null correlation. Paired activity was recorded at a mean luminance of 0 and 1000 isomerizations (R*) per rod per second.

Close modal
Figure 13:

Results are robust to different thresholds on the information train. (A, B) Dimensionless reaction time measured using threshold 2 (left, 0.2 errors/s) and 3 (right, 0.4 errors/s) versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bars = standard error estimate of the data around the fits. (C, D) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (E) Top: minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size for thresholds 1 (0.1 errors/s), 2, and 3. Bottom: optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size.

Figure 13:

Results are robust to different thresholds on the information train. (A, B) Dimensionless reaction time measured using threshold 2 (left, 0.2 errors/s) and 3 (right, 0.4 errors/s) versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bars = standard error estimate of the data around the fits. (C, D) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (E) Top: minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size for thresholds 1 (0.1 errors/s), 2, and 3. Bottom: optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size.

Close modal
Figure 14:

Results are robust to different levels of responsivity. (A) Reaction time δ versus burstiness β with information train readout. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensional analysis collapses the data for different firing rates. Dimensionless reaction time is plotted against dimensionless burstiness. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. Responsivity is fixed at 60% and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2.

Figure 14:

Results are robust to different levels of responsivity. (A) Reaction time δ versus burstiness β with information train readout. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, population is fixed at 5 cells, correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2, and total firing rate is fixed at 30, 60, and 100 Hz. (B) Dimensional analysis collapses the data for different firing rates. Dimensionless reaction time is plotted against dimensionless burstiness. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bar = standard error estimate of the data around the fit. (C) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Responsivity is fixed at 60%, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (D) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size. Responsivity is fixed at 60% and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2.

Close modal
Figure 15:

Results are robust to different ways of constructing the population information train. (A, B) Dimensionless reaction time measured using aggregation options B (left) and C (right) versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bars = standard error estimate of the data around the fits. (C, D) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (E) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size for aggregation options A, B, and C. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size.

Figure 15:

Results are robust to different ways of constructing the population information train. (A, B) Dimensionless reaction time measured using aggregation options B (left) and C (right) versus dimensionless burstiness. Population is fixed at 5 cells, and correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. Trial-averaged (median) data are shown. Error bars = standard error estimate of the data around the fits. (C, D) Existence of a minimum is robust across population sizes. Correlation is fixed between 0 and 0.2. (E) Top: Minimum (dimensionless) reaction time against population size for aggregation options A, B, and C. Bottom: Optimal (dimensionless) burstiness against population size.

Close modal

We are grateful to all members of the Schwartz Lab for their feedback and support on this project. We thank Stephanie Palmer and Sophia Weinbar for their comments on the manuscript, as well as Sara Solla and Ann Kennedy for their feedback on the project.

We have no competing interests to disclose.

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