We present a novel recurrent neural network (RNN)–based model that combines the remembering ability of unitary evolution RNNs with the ability of gated RNNs to effectively forget redundant or irrelevant information in its memory. We achieve this by extending restricted orthogonal evolution RNNs with a gating mechanism similar to gated recurrent unit RNNs with a reset gate and an update gate. Our model is able to outperform long short-term memory, gated recurrent units, and vanilla unitary or orthogonal RNNs on several long-term-dependency benchmark tasks. We empirically show that both orthogonal and unitary RNNs lack the ability to forget. This ability plays an important role in RNNs. We provide competitive results along with an analysis of our model on many natural sequential tasks, including question answering, speech spectrum prediction, character-level language modeling, and synthetic tasks that involve long-term dependencies such as algorithmic, denoising, and copying tasks.
We extend the neural Turing machine (NTM) model into a dynamic neural Turing machine (D-NTM) by introducing trainable address vectors. This addressing scheme maintains for each memory cell two separate vectors, content and address vectors. This allows the D-NTM to learn a wide variety of location-based addressing strategies, including both linear and nonlinear ones. We implement the D-NTM with both continuous and discrete read and write mechanisms. We investigate the mechanisms and effects of learning to read and write into a memory through experiments on Facebook bAbI tasks using both a feedforward and GRU controller. We provide extensive analysis of our model and compare different variations of neural Turing machines on this task. We show that our model outperforms long short-term memory and NTM variants. We provide further experimental results on the sequential MNIST, Stanford Natural Language Inference, associative recall, and copy tasks.