A JPEG Quality Transcoder (JQT) converts a JPEG image file that was encoded with low image quality to a larger JPEG image file with reduced visual artifacts, without access to the original uncompressed image. In this article, we describe technology for JQT design that takes a pattern recognition approach to the problem, using a database of images to train statistical models of the artifacts introduced through JPEG compression. In the training procedure for these models, we use a model of human visual perception as an error measure. Our current prototype system removes 32.2% of the artifacts introduced by moderate compression, as measured on an independent test database of linearly coded images using a perceptual error metric. This improvement results in an average PSNR reduction of 0.634 dB.
The barn owl accurately localizes sounds in the azimuthal plane, using interaural time difference as a cue. The time-coding pathway in the owl's brainstem encodes a neural map of azimuth, by processing interaural timing information. We have built a silicon model of the time-coding pathway of the owl. The integrated circuit models the structure as well as the function of the pathway; most subcircuits in the chip have an anatomical correlate. The chip computes all outputs in real time, using analog, continuous-time processing.