This article extends the well-known SMO algorithm of support vector machines (SVMs) to least-squares SVM formulations that include LS-SVM classification, kernel ridge regression, and a particular form of regularized kernel Fisher discriminant. The algorithm is shown to be asymptotically convergent. It is also extremely easy to implement. Computational experiments show that the algorithm is fast and scales efficiently (quadratically) as a function of the number of examples.
This article points out an important source of inefficiency in Platt's sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm that is caused by the use of a single threshold value. Using clues from the KKT conditions for the dual problem, two threshold parameters are employed to derive modifications of SMO. These modified algorithms perform significantly faster than the original SMO on all benchmark data sets tried.