Representing data using time-resolved networks is valuable for analyzing functional data of the human brain. One commonly used method for constructing time-resolved networks from data is sliding window Pearson correlation (SWPC). One major limitation of SWPC is that it applies a high-pass filter to the activity time series. Therefore, if we select a short window (desirable to estimate rapid changes in connectivity), we will remove important low-frequency information. Here, we propose an approach based on single sideband modulation (SSB) in communication theory. This allows us to select shorter windows to capture rapid changes in the time-resolved functional network connectivity (trFNC). We use simulation and real resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to demonstrate the superior performance of SSB+SWPC compared to SWPC. We also compare the recurring trFNC patterns between individuals with the first episode of psychosis (FEP) and typical controls (TC) and show that FEPs stay more in states that show weaker connectivity across the whole brain. A result exclusive to SSB+SWPC is that TCs stay more in a state with negative connectivity between sub-cortical and cortical regions. Based on all the results, we argue that SSB+SWPC is more sensitive for capturing temporal variation in trFNC.

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Handling Editor: Richard Betzel

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