Low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) is a non-invasive technique that safely alters neural activity, reaching deep brain areas with good spatial accuracy. We investigated the effects of TUS in macaques using a recent metric, the synergy minus redundancy rank gradient, that quantifies different kinds of neural information processing. We analyzed this high-order quantity on the fMRI data after TUS in two targets: the supplementary motor area (SMA-TUS) and the frontal polar cortex (FPC-TUS). The TUS produced specific changes at the limbic network at FPC-TUS and the motor network at SMA-TUS and altered the sensorimotor, temporal, and frontal networks in both targets, mostly consistent across macaques. Moreover, there was a reduction in the structural and functional coupling after both stimulations. Finally, the TUS changed the intrinsic high-order network topology, decreasing the modular organization of the redundancy at SMA-TUS and increasing the synergistic integration at FPC-TUS.

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Handling Editor: James Shine

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Supplementary data