Background. Different linguistic contexts place varying amounts of cognitive control on lexical retrieval in bilingual speakers, an issue that is complicated in bilingual people with aphasia (BPWA) due to subsequent language and cognitive deficits. Verbal fluency tasks may offer insight into the interaction between executive and language control in healthy bilinguals and BPWA, by examining conditions with varying cognitive control demands.

Aims. The present study examined switching and clustering in verbal fluency tasks in BPWA and healthy bilinguals across single- and dual-language conditions. We also examined the influence of language processing and language proficiency on switching and clustering performance across the dual-language conditions.

Materials and Methods. Thirty-five Spanish-English BPWA and twenty-two Spanish-English healthy bilinguals completed a language use questionnaire, tests of language processing, and two verbal fluency tasks. The semantic category generation task included four conditions, two single-language conditions (No-Switch L1 and No-Switch L2) which required word production in each language separately, one dual-language condition which allowed switching between languages as desired (Self-Switch), and one dual-language condition which required switching between languages after each response (Forced-Switch). The letter fluency task required word production in single-language contexts.

Outcomes and Results. Overall, healthy bilinguals outperformed BPWA across all measures. Results indicate that switching is more sensitive to increased control demands than clustering, with this effect being more pronounced in BPWA, underscoring the interaction between semantic executive processes and language control in this group. Additionally, for BPWA switching performance relies on a combination of language abilities and language experience measures.

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