Language processing relies on the communication between brain regions that is achieved through several white matter tracts, part of the dorsal, ventral, and medial pathways involved in language processing and control (Coggins et al., 2004; Friederici & Gierhan, 2013; Hickok & Poeppel, 2007; Luk et al., 2011). While changes in white matter tract morphology have been reported as a function of second language learning in bilinguals, little is known about changes that may be present in multilanguage users. Here we investigate white matter morphometry in a group of highly proficient multilinguals, (individuals with proficiency in four or more languages), compared to a group of monolinguals. White matter morphometry was quantified using a fixel-based analysis (Raffelt et al., 2015, 2017; Tournier et al., 2007). Higher fiber cross-section and lower fiber density values were observed for the multilinguals, in the dorsal pathways (superior longitudinal fasciculus and arcuate fasciculus) and the ventral pathway, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the uncinate fasciculus. Segments of the corpus callosum, the fornix, and the cortico-spinal tract showed decreases in all three morphometry measures for multilinguals. The findings suggest differential efficiencies in neural communication between domain-specific language regions and domain-general cognitive processes underlying multilingual language use. We discuss the results in relation to the bilingual Anterior to Posterior and Subcortical Shift (BAPSS) hypothesis (Grundy et al., 2017) and the Dynamic Restructuring Model (Pliatsikas, 2020).

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Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Handling Editor: Anthony Steven Dick

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