This article, the second of a tandem study of the Chomskyan revolution (the first is in the spring issue of Perspectives on Science), charts the increasingly antagonistic rhetoric of the Chomskyan program in the late fifties and early sixties. Chomsky began emphasizing the cognitive (a.k.a. “mentalist”) aspects of his program, along with a rationalist epistemology, both of which were anathema to the Bloomfieldians. He championed an anti-Bloomfieldian approach to phonology. Further, he insisted that neither the transformation nor the semantic inroads it promised could be adopted without also adopting the cognitive, rationalist framework and rejecting Bloomfieldian phonology.

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