Bayesians and error statisticians have relied heavily upon examples from physics in developing their accounts of scientific inference. The present essay demonstrates it is possible to analyze H.B.D. Kettlewell's classic study of natural selection from Deborah Mayo's error statistical point of view (Mayo 1996). A comparison with a previous analysis of this episode from a Bayesian perspective (Rudge 1998) reveals that the error statistical account makes better sense of investigations such as Kettlewell's because it clarifies how core elements in the design of experiments are used to minimize erroneous inferences rather than dwelling on whether the strategies used are reasonable.

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