Three-dimensional user interface design is a critical component of any virtual environment (VE) application. In this paper, we present a broad overview of 3-D interaction and user interfaces. We discuss the effect of common VE hardware devices on user interaction, as well as interaction techniques for generic 3-D tasks and the use of traditional 2-D interaction styles in 3-D environments. We divide most user-interaction tasks into three categories: navigation, selection/manipulation, and system control. Throughout the paper, our focus is on presenting not only the available techniques but also practical guidelines for 3-D interaction design and widely held myths. Finally, we briefly discuss two approaches to 3-D interaction design and some example applications with complex 3-D interaction requirements. We also present an annotated online bibliography as a reference companion to this article.

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