An excavator simulator has been developed to facilitate the training of human operators and to evaluate control strategies for heavy-duty hydraulic machines. The operator controls a virtual excavator by means of a joystick while experiencing visual and force feedback generated by environment and machine models. The simulator comprises an impedance model of the excavator arm, a model for the bucket-ground interaction forces, a graphically rendered visual environment, and a haptic interface. This paper describes the simulator components and their integration.

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