Training is usually regarded as one of the most natural application areas of virtual reality (VR). To date, most VR-based training systems have been situation based, but this paper examines the utility of VR for a different class of training: learning to execute exact motions, which are often required in sports and the arts. In this paper, we propose an interaction method, called Just Follow Me (JFM), that uses an intuitive “ghost” metaphor and a first-person viewpoint for effective motion training. Using the ghost metaphor (GM), JFM visualizes the motion of the trainer in real time as a ghost (initially superimposed on the trainee) that emerges from one's own body. The trainee who observes the motion from the first-person viewpoint “follows” the ghostly master as closely as possible to learn the motion. Our basic hypothesis is that such a VR system can help a student learn motion effectively and quickly, comparably to the indirect real-world teaching methods. Our evaluation results show that JFM produces training and transfer effects as good as—and, in certain situations, better than—in the real world. We believe that this is due to the more direct and correct transfer of proprioceptive information from the trainer to the trainee.

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