This paper develops an integrated model of playfulness and flow in virtual reality (VR) computer interactions using constructs drawn from the fields of occupational therapy, social psychology, applied psychology, and cultural anthropology. The purpose of this paper is to describe some ongoing research in our lab with disabled children and adults. We propose some testable hypotheses linked to constructs in the model that we have done some preliminary research in, and we suggest other hypothesis testing for future research. Key elements in the model that have been tested in our lab include self-efficacy and volition. They are seen as necessary characteristics of an individual that will influence his or her playfulness with the activity of VR. Flow and playfulness were two other constructs in the model that we hypothesize are related to volition and self-efficacy. We studied how flow is related to playfulness. The findings supported previous research on self-efficacy and volition as children and adults reported that being in control was important and stressed the value of being able to do new things. Playfulness was expressed as being able to feel presence with the activity. We looked at how playfulness was related to creativity, another construct in the model believed to be an outcome of playfulness. These studies will be reported in more detail in the paper as well as recommendations for further research.

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