Shared control represents a middle ground between supervisory control and traditional bilateral control in which the remote system can exert control over some aspects of the task while the human operator maintains access to low-level forces and motions. In the case of dexterous telemanipulation, a natural approach is to share control of the object handling forces while giving the human operator direct access to remote tactile and force information at the slave fingertips. We describe a set of experiments designed to determine whether shared control can improve the ability of an operator to handle objects delicately and to determine what combinations of force, visual, and audio feedback provide the best level of performance and operator sense of presence. The results demonstrate the benefits of shared control and the need to carefully choose the types and methods of direct and indirect feedback.

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