We present a physically-based approach to grasping and manipulation of virtual objects that produces visually realistic results, addresses the problem of visual inter-penetration of hand and object models, and performs force rendering for force-feedback gloves, in a single framework. Our approach couples a simulation-controlled articulated hand model to tracked hand configuration using a system of linear and torsional virtual spring-dampers. We discuss an implementation of our approach that uses a widely available simulation tool for collision detection and response. We pictorially illustrate the resulting behavior of the virtual hand model and of grasped objects, discuss user behavior and difficulties encountered, and show that the simulation rate is sufficient for control of current force-feedback glove designs. We also present a prototype system for natural whole-hand interactions in a desktop-sized workspace.

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