Time delay is recognized as an important issue in haptic telepresence systems as it is inherent to long-distance data transmission. What factors influence haptic delay perception in a time-delayed environment are, however, largely unknown. In this article, we examine the impact of manual movement frequency and amplitude in a sinusoidal exploratory movement as well as the stiffness of the haptic environment on the detection threshold for delay in haptic feedback. The results suggest that the detection of delay in force feedback depends on the movement frequency and amplitude, while variation of the absolute feedback force level does not influence the detection threshold. A model based on the exploration movement is proposed and guidelines for system design with respect to the time delay in haptic feedback are provided.

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