Abstract

Manipulation is one of the most important tasks required in virtual environments and thus it has been thoroughly studied for widespread input devices such as mice or multi-touch screens. Nowadays, the Kinect sensor has turned mid-air interaction into another affordable and popular way of interacting. Mid-air interaction enables the possibility of interacting remotely without any physical contact and in a more natural manner. Nonetheless, although some scattered manipulation techniques have been proposed for mid-air interaction, there is a lack of evaluations and comparisons that hinders the selection and development of these techniques. To solve this issue, we gathered four design choices that can be used to classify mid-air manipulation techniques. Namely, choices are based on the required number of hands, separation of translation–rotation, decomposition of rotation, and interaction metaphors. Furthermore, we developed, adapted, and compared three manipulation techniques selected for studying the implications of the design choices. These implications are useful to select among already existing techniques as well as to inform technique developers.

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