A mouse was modified to add tactile and force display. Tactile feedback, or display, was added via a solenoid driving a small pin protruding through a hole in the mouse button. Force feedback was added via an electromagnet and an iron mouse pad. Both enhancements were embedded in the mouse casing, increasing its weight from 103 to 148 g. In a target selection task experiment, the addition of tactile information feedback reduced target selection times slightly, compared to the no additional feedback condition. A more pronounced effect was observed on the clicking time—the time to selection once the cursor entered the target. In this case, we observed a statistically significant speed-up of about 12% in the presence of tactile feedback. The modified mouse was also used in a test of virtual texture. The amplitude and frequency of solenoid pulses were varied according to the movement of the mouse and the underlying virtual texture. Subjects could reliably discriminate between different textures.

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