In this paper, sliding mode nonlinear control is applied to force reflecting teleoperation. Various forms of the sliding mode control law are derived for force feedback master manipulation with an arbitrary factor for force and position scaling. Experiments were performed on a one axis test system and frequency domain Hybrid 2-port matrices are measured and compared between the sliding mode controller and a classical position error-based feedback controller. Time domain experiments are also performed. The model-based portion of the sliding mode controller was shown to be responsible for most of its performance improvement, but the nonlinear “sliding” component was essential for steady-state position accuracy and robust stability.

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