Abstract

See-through head-mounted displays (STHMDs), which superimpose the virtual environment generated by computer graphics (CG) on the real world, are expected to be able to vividly display various simulations and designs by using both the real environment and the virtual environment around us. However, we must ensure that the virtual environment is superimposed exactly on the real environment because both environments are visible. Disagreement in matching locations and size between real and virtual objects is likely to occur between the world coordinates of the real environment where the STHMD user actually exists and those of the virtual environment described as parameters of CG. This disagreement directly causes displacement of locations where virtual objects are superimposed. The STHMD must be calibrated so that the virtual environment is superimposed properly. Among the causes of such errors, we focus both on systematic errors of projection transformation parameters caused in manufacturing and differences between actual and supposed location of user's eye on STHMD when in use, and propose a calibration method to eliminate these effects. In the calibration method, the virtual cursor drawn in the virtual environment is directly fitted onto targets in the real environment. Based on the result of fitting, the least-squares method identifies values of the parameters that minimize differences between locations of the virtual cursor in the virtual environment and targets in the real environment. After we describe the calibration methods, we also report the result of this application to the STHMD that we have made. The result is accurate enough to prove the effectiveness of the calibration methods.

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