This paper describes an implementation of “robotic graphics,” in which forces and torques are provided in virtual environments by the method of interacting with robots that are not attached to the body. The demonstration simulates a flat control panel containing an assortment of switches by using an immersive virtual reality head-mounted display, electro-magnetic and videometric tracking, and a robot that holds a turret containing one of each of the types of switches. The robot dynamically presents the switches to be touched in a just-in-time only-as-needed basis. Results are presented regarding visual/force registration for finger tracking and human performance.

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