Realistic virtual reality visualizations of a physical place, whether historic or contemporary, can exude a sense of certainty about their accuracy. They can also evade complexity by excluding under-represented narratives about place such as those held by indigenous and other marginalized communities. Through engaging with a framework of complexity, ethics, and humility, we propose a technique of immersive virtual storytelling (IVS) which foregrounds uncertainty through a combination of realistic material treatments and translucent, ephemeral “ghost textures.” By applying these treatments to two virtual three-dimensional models telling a pre- and post-construction story of a World War II-era rifle range, we were able to test the use of these treatments in exposing gaps in archival data. This highlighted the predominance of a colonial lens in guiding historic site visualization, raising a question of how other narratives might be included without conforming to a colonial framework.

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