In this paper, an asynchronous brain–computer interface is presented that enables the control of a wheelchair in virtual environments using only one motor imagery task. The control is achieved through a graphical intentional control interface with three navigation commands (move forward, turn right, and turn left) which are displayed surrounding a circle. A bar is rotating in the center of the circle, so it points successively to the three possible commands. The user can, by motor imagery, extend this bar length to select the command at which the bar is pointing. Once a command is selected, the virtual wheelchair moves in a continuous way, so the user controls the length of the advance or the amplitude of the turns. Users can voluntarily switch from this interface to a noncontrol interface (and vice versa) when they do not want to generate any command. After performing a cue-based feedback training, three subjects carried out an experiment in which they had to navigate through the same fixed path to reach an objective. The results obtained support the viability of the system.

This content is only available as a PDF.