Motion platforms can be used to provide vestibular cues in a driving simulator, and have been shown to reduce driving speed and acceleration. However, motion platforms are expensive devices, and alternatives for providing motion cues need to be investigated. In independent experiments, the following eight low-cost nonvestibular motion cueing systems were tested by comparing driver performance to control groups driving with the cueing system disengaged: (1) seat belt tensioning system, (2) vibrating steering wheel, (3) motion seat, (4) screeching tire sound, (5) beeping sound, (6) road noise, (7) vibrating seat, and (8) pressure seat. The results showed that these systems are beneficial in reducing speed and acceleration and that they improve lane-keeping and/or stopping accuracy. The seat belt tensioning system had a particularly large influence on driver braking performance. This system reduced driving speed, increased stopping distance, reduced maximum deceleration, and increased stopping accuracy. It is concluded that low-cost nonvestibular motion cueing may be a welcome alternative for improving in-simulator performance so that it better matches real-world driving performance.

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