Skip Nav Destination
1-3 of 3
Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account
Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Effects of Stereoscopic Presentation, Image Motion, and Screen Size on Subjective and Objective Corroborative Measures of Presence
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (2001) 10 (3): 298–311.
Published: 01 June 2001
AbstractView article PDF
Recently, we reported that group subjective measures of presence as well as observers' postural responses are sensitive to increasing the realism of a display with motion content, by the addition of stereoscopic information, using a 20-inch stereoscopic screen with an effective horizontal field of view of 28 deg. (Freeman, Avons, Meddis, Pearson, & IJsselsteijn, 2000). The experiment presented here employed a large projection display with a 50 deg. horizontal field of view showing a rally car traversing a curved track at speed. The independent variables included image motion and stereoscopic presentation as within-subjects factors and screen size as a between-subjects factor. Dependent variables included subjective measures of presence, vection, involvement, and sickness, as well as observers' lateral postural responses, which served as a candidate objective corroborative measure of presence. Results demonstrated a noisy yet positive effect of stereoscopic presentation on the lateral postural responses. Post-test subjective ratings revealed a significant effect of stereoscopic presentation on the subjective judgments of presence, but not on those of vection, involvement, or sickness. Image motion had a large and significant effect on the subjective judgments of presence, vection, and involvement. The effect of image motion was considerably larger than that of stereoscopic viewing. By comparing results between experiments, a large effect of screen size on subjective presence ratings could be demonstrated, but only for the video stimulus that contained motion. The postural response measure did not differentiate between screen sizes, thus limiting its utility as an objective corroborative measure of presence, although further research is required to be able to be more firm in our conclusion regarding this issue.
Using Behavioral Realism to Estimate Presence: A Study of the Utility of Postural Responses to Motion Stimuli
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (2000) 9 (2): 149–164.
Published: 01 April 2000
AbstractView article PDF
We recently reported that direct subjective ratings of the sense of presence are potentially unstable and can be biased by previous judgments of the same stimuli (Freeman et al., 1999). Objective measures of the behavioral realism elicited by a display offer an alternative to subjective ratings. Behavioral measures and presence are linked by the premise that, when observers experience a mediated environment (VE or broadcast) that makes them feel present, they will respond to stimuli within the environment as they would to stimuli in the real world. The experiment presented here measured postural responses to a video sequence filmed from the hood of a car traversing a rally track, using stereoscopic and monoscopic presentation. Results demonstrated a positive effect of stereoscopic presentation on the magnitude of postural responses elicited. Posttest subjective ratings of presence, vection, and involvement were also higher for stereoscopically presented stimuli. The postural and subjective measures were not significantly correlated, indicating that nonproprioceptive postural responses are unlikely to provide accurate estimates of presence. Such postural responses may prove useful for the evaluation of displays for specific applications and in the corroboration of group subjective ratings of presence, but cannot be taken in place of subjective ratings.
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (1999) 8 (1): 1–13.
Published: 01 February 1999
AbstractView article PDF
We report three experiments using a new form of direct subjective presence evaluation that was developed from the method of continuous assessment used to assess television picture quality. Observers were required to provide a continuous rating of their sense of presence using a handheld slider. The first experiment investigated the effects of manipulating stereoscopic and motion parallax cues within video sequences presented on a 20 in. stereoscopic CRT display. The results showed that the presentation of both stereoscopic and motion parallax cues was associated with higher presence ratings. One possible interpretation of Experiment 1 is that CRT displays that contain the spatial cues of stereoscopic disparity and motion parallax are more interesting or engaging. To test this, observers in Experiment 2 rated the same stimuli first for interest and then for presence. The results showed that variations in interest did not predict the presence ratings obtained in Experiment 1. However, the subsequent ratings of presence differed significantly from those obtained in Experiment 1, suggesting that prior experience with interest ratings affected subsequent judgments of presence. To test this, Experiment 3 investigated the effects of prior experience on presence ratings. Three groups of observers rated a training sequence for interest, presence, and 3-Dness before rating the same stimuli as used for Experiments 1 and 2 for presence. The results demonstrated that prior ratings sensitize observers to different features of a display resulting in different presence ratings. The implications of these results for presence evaluation are discussed, and a combination of more-refined subjective measures and a battery of objective measures is recommended.