We semiparametrically estimate average causal effects of different lengths of exposure to academic and vocational instruction in the Job Corps (JC) under the assumption that selection into different lengths is based on a rich set of observed covariates and time-invariant factors. We find that the estimated effects on future earnings increase in the length of exposure and that the marginal effects of additional instruction decrease with length of exposure. We also document differences in the estimated effects across demographic groups, which are particularly large between males and females. Finally, our results suggest an important lock-in effect in JC training.

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