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Table 3. 

Anatomical description of the M = 20 modules (along with volumes) in the hierarchical atlas published recently (Diez, Bonifazi, et al., 2015) and available to download at www.nitrc.org/projects/biocr_hcatlas/.

Module (Volume) Anatomical Description 
Module 1 (7.26 cm3Posterior cingulate: posterior area of the cingulate gyrus or callosal convolution. Located above the corpus callosum, it goes from the frontal lobe back to the temporal uncus and up to the splenium. It belongs to the default mode network. 
 
Module 2 (104.36 cm3Putamen: a round structure located at the base of the telencephalon. It is also one of the basal ganglia structures. 
Anterior cingulate: anterior frontal region of the cingulate gyrus, initiated above the rostrum of the corpus callosum. 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus: anterior inferior end of the middle frontal gyrus. 
Superior parietal gyrus: parietal gyrus located posterior to the postcentral gyrus. 
Supramarginal gyrus: region in the parietal lobe encircling the posterior extreme of the Sylvian fissure. 
Insula: triangular area of cerebral cortex forming the medial wall of the Sylvian fissure. 
Inferior parietal gyrus: parietal gyrus located behind the postcentral gyrus and below the superior parietal gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus: frontal gyrus that defines the anterior boundary of the fissure of Rolando with a mainly motor function. 
Superior frontal gyrus: antero-superior parasagittal frontal gyrus, located anterior to the precentral gyrus. 
 
Module 3 (221.18 cm3Paracentral lobule: medial gyrus that connects the pre- and postcentral gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Postcentral gyrus: Parietal gyrus located between the fissure of Rolando and the postcentral sulcus, which has a mainly sensory function. 
Precuneus: square brain lobule located before the parieto-occipital sulcus and behind the paracentral lobule at the medial surface of the brain hemisphere. 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2). 
Superior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior temporal gyrus: temporal gyrus at the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. It is located below the Sylvian fissure and above the superior temporal sulcus. It belongs to the temporal neocortex. 
Supramarginal gyrus (cf. Module 2). 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 4 (91.48 cm3Cuneus: occipital gyrus between the parieto-occipital sulcus and the calcarine sulcus at the medial surface of the occipital lobe. 
Lateral occipital sulcus: external lateral surface of the occipital lobe close to the occipital lobe, dividing the external occipital gyrus. 
Lingual gyrus: occipital extension of the parahippocampal gyrus at the medial surface of the occipital lobe. 
Pericalcarine cortex: occipital area encircling the calcarine sulcus with a function associated to visual perception. 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
 
Module 5 (37.02 cm3Medial frontal gyrus: frontal gyrus at the lateral surface below the superior frontal gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 6 (159.33 cm3Cerebellum: posterior part of the rombencephalon made up of the two hemispheres and the central vermis. It is located below the occipital lobe. 
Fusiform gyrus: temporal gyrus in the inferior surface between the inferior temporal gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. It has two areas, the medial occipito-temporal gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal gyrus. 
Inferior temporal gyrus: inferior gyrus located in the lateral surface of the temporal lobe, below the inferior temporal sulcus. 
Lateral occipital sulcus (cf. Module 4) 
Superior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 7 (22.30 cm3Thalamus: middle symmetrical structure of the diencephalon with multiple afferent and efferent connections, situated around the third ventricle. 
Caudate nucleus (symmetrical structure): one of the basic structures of the basal ganglia belonging to the corpus striatum. It is located at the lateral surface of the lateral ventricles surrounding the thalamus. 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Pallidum: symmetrical structure within the basal ganglia. Medial diencephalic region of the lenticular nucleus. 
Accumbens nucleus: symmetrical structure located in the ventral region of the corpus striatum, therefore belonging to the basal ganglia. 
 
Module 8 (3.29 cm3Caudate nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 9 (163.67 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Caudal middle frontal: frontal gyrus on the lateral surface located below and lateral to the superior frontal gyrus. This region refers to its most caudal part. 
Cingulate isthmus: intersection narrowing between the cingulate and the hippocampal gyrus. It is located behind and below the splenium of the corpus callosum. 
Posterior cingulate (cf. Module 1) 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 10 (103.55 cm3Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 2) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Orbital gyrus: frontobasal gyrus lateral located to the straight gyrus. 
Pars opercularis: opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Pars orbitalis: orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Pars triangularis: inferior part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 11 (31.08 cm3Caudate nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Accumbens nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Lateral frontal orbital gyrus: external orbital gyrus, located frontobasal and lateral to the medial orbitofrontal gyrus. 
Orbital gyrus (cf. Module 10) 
Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 10) 
 
Module 12 (33.24 cm3Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Inferior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Lateral frontal orbital gyrus (cf. Module 11) 
Pars orbitalis (cf. Module 10) 
Pars triangularis (cf. Module 10) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate (cf. Modules 7 and 2) 
 
Module 13 (24.46 cm3Middle frontal gyrus: caudal part of the middle frontal gyrus. 
Pars opercularis (cf. Module 10) 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 14 (92.75 cm3Thalamus (cf. Module 7) 
Hippocampus: symmetrical grey matter structure, located in the medial-temporal region, at the base of the temporal horn. 
Amygdala: grey nuclei located in the temporal uncus, above the temporal ventricular horn. It belongs to the rhinencephalon. 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Ventral diencephalon: multiple structures containing the hypothalamus, mammillary tubercle, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, geniculate body, optic tract and cerebral peduncles. 
Banks of the superior temporal sulcus: Temporal lobe structure between the superior temporal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. 
Parahippocampal gyrus: convolution located below the hippocampal sulcus in the temporal mesial region. 
Superior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 3) 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
Middle temporal gyrus: gyrus located on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe between the inferior and superior temporal sulcus. 
Temporal pole: anterior end of the temporal lobe. 
 
Module 15 (42.96 cm3Thalamus (cf. Module 7) 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Pallidum (cf. Module 7) 
Brainstem: it consists of three parts, the myelencephalon, pons (metencephalon) and midbrain (mesencephalon). It is the main communication route between the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. 
Hippocampus (cf. region14) 
Amygdala (cf. Module 14) 
Accumbens nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Ventral diencephalon (cf. Module 14) 
Orbital gyrus (cf. Module 10) 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 16 (65.58 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Banks of the superior temporal sulcus (cf. Module 14) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Cingulate isthmus (cf. Module 9) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
Superior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 3) 
 
Module 17 (5.29 cm3Banks of the superior temporal sulcus (cf. Module 14) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
 
Module 18 (74.39 cm3Hippocampus (cf. Module 14) 
Amygdala (cf. Module 14) 
Entorhinal cortex: area in the medial-temporal lobe located between the hippocampus and temporal neocortex. 
Fusiform gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Inferior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Parahippocampal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Temporal pole (cf. Module 14) 
 
Module 19 (28.54 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Brainstem (cf. Module 15) 
 
Module 20 (34.91 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Parahippocampal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Module (Volume) Anatomical Description 
Module 1 (7.26 cm3Posterior cingulate: posterior area of the cingulate gyrus or callosal convolution. Located above the corpus callosum, it goes from the frontal lobe back to the temporal uncus and up to the splenium. It belongs to the default mode network. 
 
Module 2 (104.36 cm3Putamen: a round structure located at the base of the telencephalon. It is also one of the basal ganglia structures. 
Anterior cingulate: anterior frontal region of the cingulate gyrus, initiated above the rostrum of the corpus callosum. 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus: anterior inferior end of the middle frontal gyrus. 
Superior parietal gyrus: parietal gyrus located posterior to the postcentral gyrus. 
Supramarginal gyrus: region in the parietal lobe encircling the posterior extreme of the Sylvian fissure. 
Insula: triangular area of cerebral cortex forming the medial wall of the Sylvian fissure. 
Inferior parietal gyrus: parietal gyrus located behind the postcentral gyrus and below the superior parietal gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus: frontal gyrus that defines the anterior boundary of the fissure of Rolando with a mainly motor function. 
Superior frontal gyrus: antero-superior parasagittal frontal gyrus, located anterior to the precentral gyrus. 
 
Module 3 (221.18 cm3Paracentral lobule: medial gyrus that connects the pre- and postcentral gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Postcentral gyrus: Parietal gyrus located between the fissure of Rolando and the postcentral sulcus, which has a mainly sensory function. 
Precuneus: square brain lobule located before the parieto-occipital sulcus and behind the paracentral lobule at the medial surface of the brain hemisphere. 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2). 
Superior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior temporal gyrus: temporal gyrus at the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. It is located below the Sylvian fissure and above the superior temporal sulcus. It belongs to the temporal neocortex. 
Supramarginal gyrus (cf. Module 2). 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 4 (91.48 cm3Cuneus: occipital gyrus between the parieto-occipital sulcus and the calcarine sulcus at the medial surface of the occipital lobe. 
Lateral occipital sulcus: external lateral surface of the occipital lobe close to the occipital lobe, dividing the external occipital gyrus. 
Lingual gyrus: occipital extension of the parahippocampal gyrus at the medial surface of the occipital lobe. 
Pericalcarine cortex: occipital area encircling the calcarine sulcus with a function associated to visual perception. 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
 
Module 5 (37.02 cm3Medial frontal gyrus: frontal gyrus at the lateral surface below the superior frontal gyrus. 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 6 (159.33 cm3Cerebellum: posterior part of the rombencephalon made up of the two hemispheres and the central vermis. It is located below the occipital lobe. 
Fusiform gyrus: temporal gyrus in the inferior surface between the inferior temporal gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. It has two areas, the medial occipito-temporal gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal gyrus. 
Inferior temporal gyrus: inferior gyrus located in the lateral surface of the temporal lobe, below the inferior temporal sulcus. 
Lateral occipital sulcus (cf. Module 4) 
Superior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 7 (22.30 cm3Thalamus: middle symmetrical structure of the diencephalon with multiple afferent and efferent connections, situated around the third ventricle. 
Caudate nucleus (symmetrical structure): one of the basic structures of the basal ganglia belonging to the corpus striatum. It is located at the lateral surface of the lateral ventricles surrounding the thalamus. 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Pallidum: symmetrical structure within the basal ganglia. Medial diencephalic region of the lenticular nucleus. 
Accumbens nucleus: symmetrical structure located in the ventral region of the corpus striatum, therefore belonging to the basal ganglia. 
 
Module 8 (3.29 cm3Caudate nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 9 (163.67 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Caudal middle frontal: frontal gyrus on the lateral surface located below and lateral to the superior frontal gyrus. This region refers to its most caudal part. 
Cingulate isthmus: intersection narrowing between the cingulate and the hippocampal gyrus. It is located behind and below the splenium of the corpus callosum. 
Posterior cingulate (cf. Module 1) 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 10 (103.55 cm3Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 2) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Orbital gyrus: frontobasal gyrus lateral located to the straight gyrus. 
Pars opercularis: opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Pars orbitalis: orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Pars triangularis: inferior part of the inferior frontal gyrus. 
Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 2) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 11 (31.08 cm3Caudate nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Accumbens nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Lateral frontal orbital gyrus: external orbital gyrus, located frontobasal and lateral to the medial orbitofrontal gyrus. 
Orbital gyrus (cf. Module 10) 
Anterior cingulate (cf. Module 10) 
 
Module 12 (33.24 cm3Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Inferior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Lateral frontal orbital gyrus (cf. Module 11) 
Pars orbitalis (cf. Module 10) 
Pars triangularis (cf. Module 10) 
Rostral pars of middle frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate (cf. Modules 7 and 2) 
 
Module 13 (24.46 cm3Middle frontal gyrus: caudal part of the middle frontal gyrus. 
Pars opercularis (cf. Module 10) 
Precentral gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Superior frontal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 14 (92.75 cm3Thalamus (cf. Module 7) 
Hippocampus: symmetrical grey matter structure, located in the medial-temporal region, at the base of the temporal horn. 
Amygdala: grey nuclei located in the temporal uncus, above the temporal ventricular horn. It belongs to the rhinencephalon. 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Ventral diencephalon: multiple structures containing the hypothalamus, mammillary tubercle, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, geniculate body, optic tract and cerebral peduncles. 
Banks of the superior temporal sulcus: Temporal lobe structure between the superior temporal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. 
Parahippocampal gyrus: convolution located below the hippocampal sulcus in the temporal mesial region. 
Superior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 3) 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
Middle temporal gyrus: gyrus located on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe between the inferior and superior temporal sulcus. 
Temporal pole: anterior end of the temporal lobe. 
 
Module 15 (42.96 cm3Thalamus (cf. Module 7) 
Putamen (cf. Module 2) 
Pallidum (cf. Module 7) 
Brainstem: it consists of three parts, the myelencephalon, pons (metencephalon) and midbrain (mesencephalon). It is the main communication route between the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. 
Hippocampus (cf. region14) 
Amygdala (cf. Module 14) 
Accumbens nucleus (cf. Module 7) 
Ventral diencephalon (cf. Module 14) 
Orbital gyrus (cf. Module 10) 
Insula (cf. Module 2) 
 
Module 16 (65.58 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Banks of the superior temporal sulcus (cf. Module 14) 
Inferior parietal gyrus (cf. Module 2) 
Cingulate isthmus (cf. Module 9) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Precuneus (cf. Module 3) 
Superior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 3) 
 
Module 17 (5.29 cm3Banks of the superior temporal sulcus (cf. Module 14) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
 
Module 18 (74.39 cm3Hippocampus (cf. Module 14) 
Amygdala (cf. Module 14) 
Entorhinal cortex: area in the medial-temporal lobe located between the hippocampus and temporal neocortex. 
Fusiform gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Inferior temporal gyrus (cf. Module 6) 
Middle temporal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Parahippocampal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
Temporal pole (cf. Module 14) 
 
Module 19 (28.54 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Brainstem (cf. Module 15) 
 
Module 20 (34.91 cm3Cerebellum (cf. Module 6) 
Parahippocampal gyrus (cf. Module 14) 
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